The insufficient response by America and Western state actors to the shifts of global forces and the sociopolitical failings across the Arab and Middle Eastern region have guaranteed the continued disposition of terrorism as a national and global threat. In fact, it has been difficult to establish adequate responses aimed at confronting the issue because of its present complexities that are attributed significantly to the opportunities offered by globalization. Terrorism is a transnational phenomenon due to the manner in which terrorists and terror cells have managed to disrupt conventional borders and organizational lines. In this respect, terrorism has evolved into an occupation performed by diverse and well-structured groups rather than small networks of persons and constantly dynamic factions. In addition, the disruption of national borders has complicated the determination of responsibility for those liable for terrorist activities. Despite efforts aimed at the implementation of strategies that focus considerably on the Arab and Middle Eastern regions, terrorism is an undeniable global threat that encapsulates all regions. Terrorism in the contemporary age must be challenged with flexible, all-around rejoinders that intentionally and efficiently utilize platforms of globalization to initiate any restrictive effects.
Terrorism has evolved into a significant issue for the global community. Statistics from the beginning of 2006 to the conclusion of 2009 revealed that more than 60 percent of states across the globe experienced some form of terrorist assault (Wilkinson, 2017). In addition to this, countries such as Colombia, Afghanistan, Iraq, India, Pakistan, Nepal, Israel, Russia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Somalia experienced more than 1000 attacks within the period in question with the worst being Afghanistan, Iraq, and Pakistan (Wilkinson, 2017). The supposition that terrorism was limited to specific areas has since been discarded considering the extent to which terrorists have managed to implement transnational operations hence placing countries across the globe at risk of attack. In addition to this, the continued efforts of the United States and its Western allies towards controlling insurgency have been met with negative repercussions as demonstrated by the losses that the armed forces from these countries have incurred (Wilkinson, 2017). The notion that the War on Terror was successful and effective in reducing terrorism is presently incorrect and necessitates further investigation regarding the extent to which the menace has managed to evolve into an unrestricted international force.
The continued threat of terrorism towards countries across the globe has been attributed to the prospects offered by international forces. Firstly, the flexibility of border controls to enable trade and tourism especially in areas such as Europe has acted as a convenient platform for transportation for terrorists and their collaborators (Onwudiwe, 2018). Terrorism has evolved into a threat capable of exhibiting an international reach. The capacity to engage in globetrotting by nomadic terrorists has resulted in the development of expedient factions that are a significant aspect of global terrorism (Kaya & Erdemir, 2008). For instance, the clique responsible for the attacks on the World Trade Center in the United States was essentially non-existent before its core affiliates traveled and united for the execution of the respective assault (Onwudiwe, 2018). The fact that these terrorists were unaffiliated with any faction, militia, or junta when arriving in the United States highlights how the simple excursion of disgruntled and malcontent individuals can lead to the creation of terror groups regardless of regular security checks and assessments performed across international boundaries.
Terrorism has managed to expand its presence globally via the development of transnational structures. An excellent example of this is The Hezbollah – a Shi’a Islamic junta from Lebanon – which currently has a presence in six continents. However, other terrorist organizations have managed to establish their bases from the regions where the Lebanese junta’s objectives and criticisms are concentrated (Guelke, 2016). Some of these groups comprise the Tamil Tigers of Sri Lanka and Palestine’s Hamas, which have managed to cause destruction and death within these regions respectively. Based on these illustrations, the structures established by terror groups have facilitated the extension of their attacks by providing more geographical alternatives. An example is the group of bombings performed by the Hezbollah in the city of Buenos-Aires, Argentina in the 1990s against targets associated with the Israeli government (Guelke, 2016). The terror cabals that inhabit foreign regions settle in these areas to exploit civil freedoms, transportation, social services, and communications (Kaya & Erdemir, 2008). It is impossible to ignore the extent to which the disruption of controls in the former USSR influenced the development of global trends that could be manipulated by transnational terrorism.
The increased movements by terrorists and the multiplication of terror cells have destroyed organizational lines. Terrorism has evolved into an activity implemented by divergent and structured groups instead of networks in the globalized community. Usually, these cells tend to be comprised of members that possess different nationalities as well as associations with a variety of groups (Cronin, 2001). To complicate the issue further, these members and groups collaborate with other predominantly in the production of falsified manuscripts, moving operatives, and documents, and thus conceal the nature of their operations (Wilkinson, 2017). However, terrorism’s capacity to affect the entire world and function on an international level is illustrated by the facilitative impact of advancements in information and communication technologies. Devices such as satellite phones have become prominent among the leaders of terrorist groups because these gadgets allow them to initiate attacks across foreign regions without revealing their exact locations (Wilkinson, 2017). The Internet has also been utilized for long distance operations with larger terror cells using it for the dissemination of propaganda to their sympathizers.
The internationalized level of terrorism necessitates the application of responses that are adaptable, multifaceted, and can exploit the prospects offered by globalization. The key here is to implement approaches that function in the same transnational manner that terrorists operate. The strategy extends beyond aspects such as law enforcement or legal authority as far as reach is concerned. For instance, the United States has implemented extraterritorial jurisdiction regarding terrorist crimes over the last two decades, and its intelligence agencies have operated consistently on a global level (Cronin, 2001). Indeed, a globalized counterterrorist measure will necessitate collaboration with international partners for the deployment of aggressive interventions against terrorists. Counterterrorist interventions can establish the entire global area as a high-threat region to limit terrorists from moving to low-threat areas (Nacos, 2016). Consequently, the objective of these measures should comprise the disruption of transnational terrorist structures, which will obstruct international terrorists before they organize or attempt to implement their attacks (Nacos, 2016). If measures against terrorism were to be internationalized, the focus would shift towards entertaining a broad outlook in organizing defensive interventions against this threat.
evolved into a complex phenomenon with a reach across all countries. Despite
the efforts implemented in the War on Terror by the United States and its
allies, terrorists have managed to attack countries across the globe without
being traditionally restricted to politically volatile areas such as the Arab
and Middle Eastern regions. Presently, global terrorism has been facilitated by
the opportunities offered by international forces. Attempts at encouraging
trade and tourism have relaxed border controls hence furthering the movement of
terrorists and distinct terror groups across different regions. Terrorists have
also been capable of establishing their cells in foreign lands away from their historical
homelands, thus allowing them to implement attacks on foreign soil and
simultaneously evading capture. Innovations in communication and information
technology have also facilitated terrorism’s reach without necessitating the
physical presence of the perpetrating actors. To control the threat, the focus
should shift towards devising and implementing flexible, versatile, and
globalized interventions. These measures will focus on upsetting terrorist
infrastructures and decreasing the deployment of terrorists to low-threat
Cronin, A. K. (2001). Behind the curve: Globalization and international terrorism. International Security, 27(3), 30-58.
Guelke, A. (2016). The new age of terrorism and the international political system. London: I.B. Tauris.
Kaya, N. C., & Erdemir, A. (2008). Social dynamics of global terrorism and prevention policies. Washington, DC: IOS Press.
Nacos, B. L. (2016). Terrorism and counterterrorism. New York, NY: Routledge.
Onwudiwe, I. D. (2018). The globalization of terrorism. New York, NY: Routledge.
Wilkinson, P. (2017). Terrorism versus democracy: The liberal state response. New York, NY: Routledge.
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