Summary: Chapter 2

Summary: Chapter 2















Summary: Chapter 2


Education and its respective theories have undergone significant changes over time since the middle ages to the 1800s. Philosophies of education were initially developed by renowned philosophers such as Aristotle, John Locke and Augustine. In the 20th century, philosophy of education undertook a turn as it was developed in institutions of education in the contexts of foundations of education. This provided a link of education with other parts of the institution such as educational history, sociology and psychology.

Educational philosophies moved from general assumptions towards the use of contexts in application of educational philosophies for student instruction. In addition, the author notes that educational philosophies have evolved as a result of the need for new ideologies that can cater for diversity of needs of students and their instructors (Webb, Metha, & Jordan, 2000). Furthermore, globalization and new technologies have played an important role in the evaluation of education given the need to address changing needs of students in modern institutional settings (Johnson, et al., 2013).


In essence, with the changes witnessed in Europe in education, there were disputes over the purposes of the disciplines within which philosophy of education should be centered within. The dominant perspectives on philosophies relative to and used in the field of education were altered as social needs and politics influenced underpinnings of education and philosophical motivations. Additionally, the changes and shifts endured by education are relative to philosophy in that motivations and ideologies helped shape modern ideologies of instruction in all levels of institutions of learning (Webb, Metha, & Jordan, 2000). Conclusively, education has been transformed over time to cater for issues such as diversity in society towards an all inclusive platform that takes into consideration differences amongst students.























Johnson, J. A., Musial, D., Hall, G. E., & Gollnick, D. M. (2013). Foundations of American education: Becoming effective teachers in challenging times.

Webb, L. D., Metha, A., & Jordan, K. F. (2000). Foundations of American education. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Merrill.

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