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The article, A Review on Prevention and Treatment of Post-Orthodontic White Spot Lesions – Evidence-Based Methods and Emerging Technologies, by Fredrik Bergstrand and Svante Twetman, assesses the orthodontic treatments that have been implemented in the treatment and management of white spot lesions (WSLs). The principal aim of the report involves appraising and updating evidence that encompasses existing measures as well as budding technological strategies that focus on the prevention and reversal of WSLs that occur even after the application of orthodontic treatments. Over the years, research in measures aimed at preventing the development of WSLs using fixed appliances has been considerably insufficient hence contributing to the severity of the particular clinical issue. Furthermore, the development of the lesions during the implementation of orthodontic measures poses a debilitating impact on the improvement of the situation even after the removal of the necessary appliances (Bergstrand & Twetman, 2011). Nonetheless, the studies that were appraised proved that further research is imperative since most of the evidence derived regarding the aversion and treatment of lesions concerning the application of fixed orthodontics was insufficient. Despite this, the review identified the significance of topical fluorides as an effective preventative measure for patients going through the treatment process.

The second article, Detection of Natural White Spot Caries Lesions by an Ultrasonic System, assesses the plausibility of ultrasonic application in the discovery of white spot caries. The hypothesis for the study is based on the findings regarding the system in question, specifically its nondestructive elements. Consequently, the study assumed that the implementation of the respective technology might prove useful in the identification of white spot carious injuries on surfaces of molar teeth. It was also understood that the application of ultrasonic technology might be positively applicable in the exercise because it may determine the demineralization of lesions that are not cavitated on the enamel (Yanikoğlu, Öztürk, Hayran, Analoui, & Stookey, 2000). After all, ultrasounds can be modified in respect to the material’s velocity or be applied in the measurement of the subject material’s thickness. It is interesting to note that the research was able to illustrate that the use of longitudinal waves via ultrasonic technology can identify the occurrence of natural lesions in enamel. Therefore, for clinical purposes, rather than rely on imaging technologies, dental facilities can apply the technology in question for diagnosing and identifying changes in tissue as far as the subject of natural caries lesions in human teeth is concerned.

The last article, White Spot Lesions: Formation, Prevention, and Treatment, by Samir E. Bishara and Adam W. Ostby, addresses the summative challenges that affect the application of fixed orthodontic measures as far as white spot lesions are concerned. The implementation of treatment measures based on fixed orthodontic treatment exposes patients to the expulsion of calcium on the teeth’s enamel surface. The outcome arises from the bonding of these appliances to human teeth, which leads to an increase in locations that preserve plaque, hence affecting the quality of the patients’ oral hygiene (Bishara & Ostby, 2008). As an outcome, patients that rely on orthodontic treatment are increasingly susceptible to the development of WSLs in contrast to those that do not partake in the utilization of the respective procedures. Orthodontic patients are also faced with the risk of getting carious cavities within their teeth especially if the lesions remain untreated. In this respect, the study advocates for the application of traditional measures such as the use of topical fluorides for treatment of lesions, fluoride varnishes for prevention, as well as mouth rinses and dentifrices. Clinically, such approaches may be utilized. However, other aggressive techniques can be implemented if the approaches are limiting.


Bergstrand, F., & Twetman, S. (2011). A review on prevention and treatment of post-orthodontic white spot lesions – evidence-based methods and emerging technologies. The Open Density Journal, 5, 158-162.

Bishara, S. E., & Ostby, A. W. (2008). White spot lesions: Formation, prevention, and treatment. Seminars in Orthodontics, 14, 174-182.

Yanikoğlu, F. Ç., Öztürk, F., Hayran, O., Analoui, M., & Stookey, G. K. (2000). Caries Research, 34, 225-232.

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