Role of Training and Development in the Organization

Role of Training and Development in the Organization





Role of Training and Development in the Organization

Meaning and Information

The main difference between training on the job and off the job is that the latter is performed outside of the working environment whole the former is carried out within the working environment. In an off the job training, new employees will be taken to a specific area where information will be provided in the form of a learning program (Mahajan, 2010). It includes activities such as lectures, case studies, role-playing, simulations, management games, vestibule training, and other learning methods.

Off the job training may also involve personnel that are not part of the organization, but those hired by the firm to train people professionally. Thus, specific areas are usually set aside for the training programs, depending on the type of training that will be chosen. On the other hand, on the job training involves allowing employees to become integrated within the new working environment and learn from immediate working experience. Therefore, the job will require the oversight of an immediate supervisor. This type of training is based on the principle of learning through doing. On the job type of training is suitable for jobs that can be learnt within a short period and those that do not require highly specialized skills (Jacobs, 2006).


There are several benefits of carrying out an off the job type of training. The benefits will be based on the specific skills the firms wishes the new employees to acquire. Foremost, employees are able to acquire a wider range of skills and qualifications from professional training done by outside parties. Another advantage is that it increases the overall level of confidence for the employee before they begin the actual job. Off the job training increases the probability that an employee will yield more in terms of productivity than when the training is carried out on the job. On the job also provides an opportunity for a firm to train a large group of trainees, thus saving time and financial resources (Jacobs, 2006). In an on the job training, employees are able to acquire more information, as there is no production, as compared to when the job is carried out during an on the job training. Additionally, off the job training does not provide production errors because employees are outside of the working environment.

For on the job training, it is simpler to carry out activities while at the same time educating new employees. It saves on time because a supervisor may carry out their working activities while at the same time training an employee on how to perform it (Surbhi, 2015). It is also economical in the sense that no extra costs are needed to educate new employees, as opposed to an off the job training. One of the greatest advantages is that the on the job training allows employees to learn quickly to ensure that productivity is gained within the shortest time possible. As compared to learning outside of the job, this method allows trainees to gain necessary knowledge of their professional responsibilities with regards to the overall practical experience.


A disadvantage of off the job training is that it is more expensive than the alternative. Many firms may need to provide resources for employees, such as transport, accommodation, and stipends while the training program is carried out even when no production is experienced. It is also disadvantageous to the firm because it reflects on a loss of potential production that would be experienced had they been working. Even after an off the job training, employees may still need further training once they enter the working environment. Once the employees have gained valuable training and qualifications, they may leave to find better jobs, which also reflect on a loss for the company. Furthermore, off the job training may not reflect the level of production, as the outside training environment may be very different from the working environment.

For an on the job training, the working environment may not present the best opportunity for learning and gaining as much information as compared to an off the job training. It may therefore, yield enough productivity because trainees are still learning as their working performance is also evaluated. It will also take a long time for them to acquire adequate information for them to work and achieve high productivity within the working environment. Additionally, there is a likelihood that employees at an on the job training will experience a higher level of productivity and working error, which may have negative consequences for the firm. There is also a likelihood of experiencing accidents within the firm. This is especially so in working environments where equipment and materials are utilized. Goods produced, such as in a manufacturing working environment may be of poorer quality.


Types of off the job training include programs that allow employees to gain theoretical and practical experiences. They are able to acquire transferable skills that can be applied in a wide range of professional environments. On the other hand, off the job training involves providing programs for employees within an environment, which is low risk (Mahajan, 2010). Off the job training may be relevant in low-skilled fields such as driving and deliveries, bartending, and a variety of other entry-level occupations. On the job training will not be effective in jobs that involve high levels of risks in the event of mistakes or accidents.


Off the job training methods include special lectures, where recruits are provided with relevant information about the job they will do. This may include qualifications and objectives of the whole training processes. Another method includes simulation, where trainees are provided with an opportunity to learn the job practically but within a controlled environment. In vestibule training, jobs are provided to the technical personnel. Employees are able to learn, assemble, and carry out operations away from the actual working environment. Similar to simulation, it allows recruits to gain a practical experience of the work they will do.

Another method is the use of case studies. Here, trainees are provided with a problem to solve, which is relevant to the actual profession. They are required to apply their previous skills and knowledge to solve the problem as they would were they in a real working environment. Another method of off the job training includes role-playing. Here, recruits are to assume the role of a specific party, such as a client, and they will, therefore, communicate, serve, and solve their problems (Unwin & Wellington, 2014). This method is commonly used in occupations where trainees will be required to interact regularly with clients and other personnel. Management games are also an effective off the job training method.

In an on the job training, methods include mentoring. Here, supervisors aim to develop the overall attitude of the recruit. Coaching involves a one on one training method where supervisors provide the necessary knowledge and practical demonstrations for the recruit. It allows the supervisor to provide necessary working styles to a recruit. Another method is the job instructional technique, where a supervisor or coach provides the employee with instructions, purpose, and goals of the job. The method facilitates a closer communication between the teacher and learner, which allows for feedbacks and corrections.

Learning Theory

Learning theories take into account factors such as emotional, cognitive, and environmental development in relation to learning processes. All these factors take into consideration the overall success and failure of learning, which involves collecting, processing or internalizing, and utilizing information for the benefit of oneself and others. Workplace training is based on the social learning theory. It is also based on the sub-theory under the social learning, known as the constructivism. The theory posits that learning involves not only gaining of relevant information but also being able to produce results.

The anchored instruction can be applied to both on the job and off the job training. It involves the use of an ‘anchor’ or in the case of training, a supervisor, coach, or trainer. Within the transformative learning theory, the educator has a responsibility of provoking the consciousness of a learner to integrate critical thinking processes (Unwin & Wellington, 2014). The result of this learning theory is that recruits will experience a change in their overall perceptions habits of mind, values, and perceptions of others.




Jacobs, R. (2006). Implementing on-the-job learning. Alexandria, VA: ASTD.

Mahajan, J. (2010). Business organization and management. Mumbai [India]: Himalaya Pub. House.

Surbhi, S. (2015). Difference between on the job and off the job training. Key differences. Accessed 4 October 2016 from

Unwin, L. & Wellington, J. (2014). Young people’s perspectives on education, training and employment. London: Kogan page.

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