Reviewing Research in Project Management for Virtual Teams





Reviewing Research in Project Management for Virtual Teams

As established in the proposal, the research aims to focus on the management of projects for geographically dispersed teams. Over the years, the organizational setting has experienced a significant overhaul in project undertaking. Since the Internet has provided a global platform for networking, organizations have been capable of employing workers from different regional milieus and backgrounds. Furthermore, companies that possess international branches and subsidiaries have also attempted to utilize such platforms in order to ensure communication with their employees who are positioned within different geospatial vicinities. Hence, the research aims at exploring the need for effective project management among teams based in disparate territorial settings. Due to this change in the business environment, virtual teams have become an accepted reality in most international organizations. Even though the implementation of this framework has been met by resistance from supporters of the face-to-face teams, it is impossible to ignore the adaptation of the virtual teams to the current globalized organization. Nonetheless, the research does not solely focus on the significance of geographically dispersed teams for the contemporary organization. However, ensuring that the study achieves its objective requires reviewing the different research articles that will be utilized. The review will take place in relation to the tenets of the research. This will enable determination of whether the articles correspond to the need for the study or not. In addition, a critique of the research articles will involve further documentation of project research for objective purposes.

Article 1

The first article, Social Ties, Knowledge Sharing and Successful Collaboration in Globally Distributed System Development Projects, by Julia Kotlarsky and Ilan Oshri discusses a range of factors that pose an effect on collaboration among geographically distributed teams in information system development. In the study, Kotlarsky and Oshri assert that human factors such as transactive memory and rapport are imperative in establishing collaborative work among globally dispersed teams (Kotlarsky and Oshri 38). Accordingly, the respective study is largely based on successful management of dispersed projects. To be more specific, the management of geographically distributed development projects is considerably challenging than locally based projects. However, based on the current innovations within Information and Communication Technology (ICT), it is possible to ensure cooperation among teams based in different regional settings. Without further deviation, reviewing the study requires assessing the main components that usually determine the efficacy of the research.

Literature Review

Overall, the literature review of any study focuses on justifying the content of the research. Usually, literature reviews utilize a myriad of past resources and studies concerning or related to the respective research subject. The purpose of this is to ensure the legitimacy and subsequent importance of the studied topic in general. Aside from this, the literature review is also responsible for informing the audience by providing data suited mainly for the research topic. In the study by Kotlarsky and Oshri, the literature review abides by such rules. Foremost, the article integrates a solid review that focuses generally on the management of geographically dispersed teams and ICT. At first, Kotlarsky and Oshri discuss of the changes that project management has faced over the years due to the current progression of ICT. In addition to this, both researchers correlate the changes in ICT to the developments experienced in project management with respect to geographically dispersed teams. This further illustrates the notion supported by Webster and Watson, who state that an effective literature review concentrates specifically on the topical concepts (Webster and Watson 15).

Even though the research is firmly based on IS development, it provides general information regarding the general dispersed projects and virtual teams. Such information is important since it enables utilization of the respective information effectively especially among other researchers interested in the subject at hand. While supporting the importance of information, Bruce asserts that literature reviews establish a single imperative context through which individuals gain access to information, which they can use effectively (Bruce 5). The scope of the article’s review is also appropriate for the study. According to Bruce (3), determination of the proper scope for a study is important especially in decision-making and guidance within research. Consequently, Kotlarsky and Oshri narrow the focus of their study to the management of geographically dispersed development teams and projects. In addition to this, the past research used within the review also focuses on the topic at hand.

The Research Question/Hypothesis

The hypothesis usually comprises the premise upon which the research is established. As such, it is imperative for this particular aspect to coincide with the objective of the study. In Kotlarsky and Oshri’s article, the research question determines the direction of the research. Even though it is not explicitly stated, it is still possible to view it within the beginning of the study. In this respect, the hypothesis tests whether contribution of knowledge and social ties is imperative in ensuring collaboration within distributed development groups. However, with respect to this, the hypothesis also affects the approach or research methodology utilized in asserting its correctness. Since the research is founded upon hypothesis testing, it establishes certain restraints that limit the emergence of themes innate within raw information. Specifically, Thomas (238) alleges that the main themes in this form of research are reframed, unclear or invisible due to preconceptions within data collection and analysis processes implemented by researchers.

Another demerit of the hypothesis is in accordance to its multivariate nature within the scope. Factually, it is relatively difficult to determine the research question for Kotlarsky and Oshri’s article. This is due to the study’s focus on different subjects of concern that are inherent within the context of the research. For instance, the article concentrates on human factors such as rapport and transactive memory considerably. This confuses the audience since the research further outlines social ties as other factors important in enabling knowledge collaboration. Reverting to Thomas (238), it is evident that the research, due to its hypothesis, obscures the research question in order to support preconceptions of the methodology used throughout the research.

The Methodology

In most research studies, two paradigms are generally utilized. These comprise qualitative and quantitative methodologies. However, there has been a current surge in the integration of these respective methodologies within a respective study. The reason for this is based on the results, which involve the dissemination of stronger data, and effective outcomes pertaining to the study (Johnson and Omwuegbuzie 17). Regarding the article, the methodology utilized amalgamates both the qualitative and quantitative methods. The sole objective of this is in accordance to the suitability of the methods within different phases of the research. For instance, the research utilizes coding as a quantitative data analytical technique. The reason for this is to ensure a quantitative assessment of the data by integrating a considerable empirical-based design. Through this analysis, the research indicates the relevance of social ties in enhancing collaboration among geographically distributed IS development teams (Kotlarsky and Oshri 41).

Similarly, the research also integrates qualitative methodology due to its predisposition towards a deductive approach. To be more specific, the article utilizes a comprehensive ethnographic study of globally dispersed projects involving software development. This allows the research to integrate an interpretive approach. In addition to this, the inclination towards an interpretive approach enables the study to utilize a case study. The application of the case study as a tactic requires utilization of an inclusive method that supports the utilization of a range of approaches concerning the collection and analysis of data (Hanson 228). In this respect, the methodology is capable of involving a quantitative and qualitative approach in order to ensure maximum efficiency in data collection, analysis as well as the determination of the results in relation to the research hypothesis.

Data Analysis

Data analysis is largely significant in determining the efficacy of research. This is because it influences emergence of themes from assessed data. In addition to this, data analysis evaluates whether the data is consistent with beforehand assumptions, conjectures or hypotheses recognized or established by a researcher. However, for Kotlarsky and Oshri’s article, the integration of a one-sided approach creates an advantage for the research. Normally, the incorporation of a quantitative and qualitative data analysis measure establishes the potential of biasness within the data. As such, data cannot be utilized properly in validating the legitimacy of the proposed premise (Ellis and Levy 324). In the research, Kotlarsky and Oshri utilize data analysis techniques that involve both the presentation of qualitative data via statements from interviewees. In terms of quantitative data, the research utilizes statement frequencies as a data analysis technique.

Regardless of the possibility of biasness, the objectivity of this mixed data analysis approach provides results that coincide with past research. In order to determine this, the research integrated different levels of measures that would assist considerably in providing effective and pragmatic results. Usually, studies based on a mixed methodology integrate an interpretive perspective enhanced by gathering and analysis processes. For instance, within this research, the investigators inculcated case studies based on an interpretive view. In addition to this, there was collection of evidence from a myriad of resources such as archival files, documentation and interviews. In order to avoid the questionability of most mixed method approaches, the data from the research was triangulated via the interviews in order to establish validity concerning the construction of the evidence collected from the different information sources.

Presentation of the Findings

The findings assume an important role in any form of study. Normally, results are responsible for testing whether the hypothesis of the research is valid or incomprehensive. Apart from this, the manner in which the findings are presented corresponds to the integrity and criticality of the respective study. According to Whittemore, Chase and Mandle (531), integrity as well as critically can be represented via humble presentation of a study’s results and recurrent evaluations of interpretations. The presentation of the findings in different ways illustrates a deviation from integrity within the study. Since the study was focusing on different aspects of social ties, the findings for the assessed teams (LeCroy and SAP) were represented within complicated categories. These categories comprised rapport, trust, transactive memory, collective knowledge, product success and personal satisfaction.

However, in order to avert from the complexity of the findings, the research presented the respective results in a simple table. From the table, the audience possessed the ability to understand the study’s results without facing difficulties in understanding the study. Additionally, the presentation of the findings within a table rekindled the study’s inclination towards integrity and criticality. This is due to the simple arrangement of the results in a tabular form. In addition, the presentation of the findings assists considerably in explaining the study’s results in a simple and uncomplicated manner. This is because the validity of a study’s findings comprises the high level of the results’ presentation towards the phenomena they are supposed to represent (Anderson 2).

Discussion of the Findings

The presentation of the findings assumes an imperative role in determining how well the results of a study are elucidated. In this respect, the study by Kotlarsky and Oshri explains its findings appropriately due to the way it represents its information. Initially, it is rather difficult to understand the data due to the lack of a decent form of presentation. Because of this, it is possible to assume that integrity is considerably lacking within the findings of the study. Additionally, the initial presentation of the findings does not succeed in a simple explanation of the phenomena researched within the study. Without tabulation of the information, the discussion of the findings seemed complicated and difficult to comprehend in relation to the focus of the study.

Nevertheless, the tabulation of the findings explains the hypothetical assumptions of the research. From the table, the audience is capable of understanding the impact that social ties impose on the fostering of collaboration within distributed development project teams. Furthermore, the tabulation of the results establishes the concepts used within the study. This is imperative especially in assessing the form of methodology used in availing the particular results for the study. In a general way, establishing such concepts develops trustworthiness in form of validity and reliability depending on the method used within the research (Graneheim and Lundman 109).

Conclusion of the Research

The conclusion of this respective study illustrates how well the hypothesis was answered. Accordingly, since the research hypothesis establishes social ties as vital in establishing knowledge collaboration, the conclusion undeniably reflects this by illustrating this. Furthermore, the conclusion also reverts to historical exploration of the role that social ties assume in relation to successful collaboration within distributed teams. While answering the research question extensively, the conclusion succeeds on integrating most of the facets utilized within the study in order to determine the validity of the research question.

Article 2

The second article, The Global Manager: A Prescription for Success by Timothy Kayworth and Dorothy Leidner studies the issues commonly experienced by geographically dispersed teams in the contemporary organization. This subject of discussion is imperative to the research since it provides information that will be imperative in studying successful project management for globally distributed teams. The motivation for Kayworth and Leidner’s research relates specifically to the challenges experienced in the organizational workplace based on the adoption of virtual teams. According to Powell, Piccoli and Ives (7), the implementation of virtual teams may fail if the challenges facing this institution within the current virtual setting are inadequately addressed. As such, Kayworth and Leidner’s article explores the major issues that virtual teams face. Such information is effective in the attempt to management projects for geographically dispersed cohorts.

Literature Review

Undeniably, a sophisticated literature review is significant in carrying out substantive, methodical and sophisticated research. According to Boote and Beile (3), an investigator cannot engage in any form of research without initially comprehending the literature within the field of scope. Inability to understand existing research inconveniences the researcher. One of the merits of Kayworth and Leidner’s article involves its scholarly focus. In elucidation, the study establishes the widespread milieu of the research. Consequently, the research’s review has provided existing information regarding the tendency of the global business community towards the utilization of virtual teams. Aside from this, the literature review is capable of utilizing general information to its advantage. Boote and Beile (3) surmise that a good literature review possesses generativity. This respective factor assists in building upon the research and scholarship of prior research.

The literature review should also be capable of demarcating both required and unimportant material within the research scope. In relation to this, Kayworth and Leidner’s research utilizes general information in order to illustrate the development of geographically distributed teams and the challenges that face them. Furthermore, the study’s review sets apart its literatures by grouping them within certain historical and academic contexts. According to Boote and Beile (4), a good literature review positions the current literature within a wider scholarly and chronological context. In the study, the research utilizes its resources in order to document the timeline illustrating the emergence of virtual teams and the gradual phase-out of face-to-face teams until this current period. Lastly, the literature review for Kayworth and Leidner’s research discusses the research methodology by mentioning the types of measures used. However, it does not assess such information critically as expected for a thorough literature review.

The Research Question/Hypothesis

Kayworth and Leidner’s research establishes a different form of research question. This is in accordance to the approach it implements. Depending on the methodology, a research can either possess an inductive or deductive approach. In this respect, the respective study utilizes a deductive approach. According to Brantlinger et al. (196), qualitative research is capable of being deductive by facilitating the procedure of reasoning from general perspectives to a specific result. In this respect, the research by Kayworth and Leidner provides a rather generalized hypothesis. This hypothesis is largely insignificant in the initial instance. However, after deduction, the study is capable of determining the particular material that the research was attempting to discover. Furthermore, the research, due to its hypothesis, focused on evaluating representative cases in order to anticipate the results. This further explains the generativity of the research question based on its tendency to underline challenges, without ascertaining specifically the problems affecting virtual teams.

Nonetheless, the hypothesis does not entirely substantiate the direction of this particular research. Based on Kayworth and Leidner’s study, the research question does not succeed in maintaining the focus of the study in relation to the information it exhibits. Simply, much of the information deviates outside the respective context. Because of this, it is relatively easy for the audience to experience confusion and loss of attention while attempting to understand the purpose of the research. In addition to this, the hypothesis-based nature of this study dissuades it from establishing clarity in its themes. Thomas (238) states that research based on the testing of hypothesis restricts the materialization of certain themes within the studied information. Because of this, it is difficult to view the research questions since they are either reframed or obscured from the target audience.

The Methodology

Based on the role that theory assumes in any research, different methodologies may be incorporated within a particular study. Foremost, the researcher can work based on an explicit theoretical framework. In contrast, the researcher can choose to avert beforehand commitment to conjecture-based concepts or research questions established before the collection of any form of data. Irrespective of this, qualitative researchers establish categories and research questions from the available data (Kaplan and Maxwell 37; Hall 376). In this respect, Kayworth and Leidner’s study integrates a qualitative methodology that is based considerably on exploratory studies. Accordingly, the research article includes a discourse corresponding to sample selection, team task assignments as well as qualitative data collection techniques such as open-ended questionnaires (Kayworth and Leidner 184-185).

In addition to this, the research methodology also exhibits a deductive approach. Concerning this, the researchers establish a natural setting rather than structured milieus. The use of a natural setting allows them to elicit thorough, exhaustive accounts of the experiences and views shared by their interviewees. For instance, the collection of data via open-ended questionnaires enabled evaluation of the participants’ perceptions towards the virtual group project. Furthermore, the division of the participants from different regional contexts into factions enabled the research to draw fixed conclusions, which were unclear based on the obscurity of the hypothesis. Moreover, the qualitative methodology employed within the study was effective in establishing the main challenges or issues affecting virtual teams. According to Kaplan and Maxwell (33), qualitative methodologies can assist in the recognition of probable problems. This is because they are capable of enabling the researcher to penetrate other forms of research designs in an effort to find out the processes and events that have led to particular results.

Data Analysis

As established, data analysis is imperative especially in the establishment of themes. Regardless of the type of methodology used within any type of research, data analysis is capable of determining certain patterns, which were not available within beforehand processes such as data collection. In this respect, the research by Kayworth and Leidner utilizes data analysis that determines certain patterns within the study. In addition to this, the research uses data analysis techniques based on a single methodology. One of the advantages of this approach is based on its deviation from prejudiced findings. As mentioned by Ellis and Levy (324), the amalgamation of qualitative and quantitative measures exposes a probability of biasness within the data and the resultant information. However, the measure used in this particular study dejects any form of partiality that may arise. This is due to its absolute utilization of a single technique based on a qualitative methodology.

Indeed, the main technique used in the research for data analysis comprises the pattern analysis measure. Based on the study, the analysis of each individual case after data collection established the emergence of certain patterns and themes, which appealed to the researcher considerably (Kayworth and Leidner 186). Because of this analysis, the research was capable of recognizing the specific categories of issues that posed significant implications on virtual project groupings. Through the technique, the researchers were capable of determining the range of trends that existed based on the data collected. Furthermore, the correlation of the data analysis to the qualitative nature of the study enabled discovery of structured themes that were objective and unbiased. As such, the data analysis technique proved to be beneficial especially in dispelling the obscurity established initially in terms of the research question.

Presentation of the Findings

Undeniably, the results of a study must be trustworthy. Apart from this, any form of research requires considerable evaluation based on the processes utilized in generating the results. Due to this, the manner in which findings are presented corresponds highly to whether such results are trustworthy or not. In this respect, the way in which this particular study represents the findings is rather simple. By grouping the challenges that virtual teams experience in categories, the audience is capable of understanding the objective of the study irrespective of its obscurity initially. Furthermore, the categorization of the issues (communication, culture, technology and project management) facing virtual teams considerably aids in comprehending the results despite of the way they are extensive upon explanation.

Tabular presentation of the results also adds further simplicity to the results of the project. Even though grouping is effective in explaining the impact of the challenges on virtual teams, it is deterring due to its broad theoretical nature. Hence, in an effort to understand the challenges, the presentation of the findings in a table enables the audience to comprehend the exact implications that such factors pose in relation to geographically dispersed teams. To be more specific, by correlating the challenges to success factors for global virtual factions, the presentation of the findings exude integrity and criticality, which is highly imperative especially in dispelling any form of bias or prejudice that comes with the type of research methodology utilized in a particular scholarly context.

Discussion of the Findings

The manner in which the findings are presented contributes considerably to how well the results are discussed. Usually, most research studies present the results in a tabular way, specifically after discussion. The same instance is also replicated in Kayworth and Leidner’s research. Accordingly, the researchers embark on explaining the outcomes of their study, without necessarily utilizing any form of presentation beforehand. In this respect, their discussion is rather convoluted. This is not due to the complexity of the subject, but rather, the significant quantity of information that they provide, which does not necessarily correlate to the results of their research concerning issues that affect geographically dispersed teams.

Nonetheless, the discussion of the findings, aside from its compressed nature, is understandable and comprehensive. Even though the researchers make their own deductions, they also utilize information from other secondary sources such as research journals. The use of quotations from the participants of the research further adds authenticity and integrity to the discourse. Since the research utilized interviews as the main form of data collection, then ensuring criticality after the study requires sufficient evidence that would be used to support the general themes supported by the researchers. Hence, the utilization of direct quotes from members of the different virtual teams operates as rational proof of the premise that virtual teams do encounter challenges.

Conclusion of the Research

The conclusion summarizes the findings of the research comprehensively. Foremost, it discusses the results of the study objectively. This is evident based on its discourse regarding the study’s sample size vulnerability to widespread generalization. In addition, the study utilizes the findings in order to illustrate the different forms of issues that geographically diverse teams face in the contemporary organizational context. Through this, the conclusion also identifies some of the probable ways through which such issues can be modified into advantages (critical success factors) for virtual teams. In spite of this, the conclusion further adds rationality to the case by discussing the demerits and the possible drawbacks that such success factors may face in light of the organizational setting in terms of traditional and virtual team contexts.

Article 3

The article, A Dimensional Analysis of Geographically Distributed Project Teams: A Case Study, by J. Roberto Evaristo, Richard Scudder, Kevin C. Desouza and Osam Sato focuses specifically on the concept of distributedness in relation to the management of dispersed projects. Evaristo et al. (175) attempt to utilize this concept in order to simplify the practical implementation of how to handle such systems. Over the years, there has been significant literature and research based on the administration of distributed tasks. The main reason for this focus is in accordance to the meaning that underlies the word ‘distributed’. Apart from other factors such as configuration, which have remained understudied within this particular context the notion of distributedness further remains unpopular regardless of the current and rapid support for geographically dispersed teams within the present organizational setting (O’Leary and Mortensen 1).

Literature Review

One of the main strong points of Evaristo et al.’s research is based on its concept-based literature review. In this section, the article introduces and discusses the concept of distributedness considerably. It does by assessing its historical background via generalization. Apart from this, the literature review integrates its study of the respective concept within the main subject of study: geographically dispersed teams. In support of this, Webster and Watson (16) assert that literature reviews should be concept-centric. This is because such concepts specify the organizational structure of the assessment. Similar to the respective article, Evaristo et al. assume a concept-centric approach that specifies the direction of the research with the specific objective in relation to the management of geographically dispersed teams and projects. In addition to this, the assumption of a concept-centric approach enables the research to be carried in a defined way rather than focus on other ideas, which may not correspond to the overall theme.

Evaristo et al.’s literature review also conveys to the audience much of the information learned in correspondence to this particular concept. Accordingly, the research study embarks on providing a history of distributedness within organization information systems. In addition to this, the review also informs the audience of the implications that the respective concept poses on project management especially in current organizations. Webster and Watson (18) state that effective literature reviews ensure that they constructively enlighten the audience concerning the material that has been learnt. One of the effective ways that the research does this is through building on previous findings evident within prior research materials. Furthermore, the review does not necessarily criticize past information. Instead, it uses such data in order to employ further discussion onto the concept as well as the larger context of the subject, which largely involves project management.

The Research Question/Hypothesis

Unlike other research articles, Evaristo et al.’s study possesses a timely and clear hypothesis. Usually, the research question guides the direction of the research. Because of this, it is expected to be precise and not vague. In this respect, this particular research article underpins its hypothesis directly without abounding to unnecessary information, which may only convolute the preciseness of the study. However, a strong aspect of the hypothesis is in correspondence to how well it relates to the literature review. According to Coughlan, Cronin and Ryan (659), a probable way of reviewing the efficacy of a hypothesis is based on its representation of the information within the literature review. As such, Evaristo et al.’s research bases its hypothesis as the main discussion point within the assessment of past literature. Because of this, the research further maintains a specific direction due to its clarity and lack of obscurity.

However, a drawback to the research question is based on its lack of a clear statement. This is a rather common feature in most studies. Accordingly, researchers tend to ignore the effect that a research question can pose on the audience if not stated clearly. Furthermore, Coughlan, Cronin and Ryan (659) establish the statement of a hypothesis as an imperative factor in determining its integrity within the overall research. The research by Evaristo et al. fails to state its hypothesis comprehensively. It is only through the article’s abstract that the audience gains an idea of the research’s hypothesis. By insufficiently stating the hypothesis, the article convolutes understanding among its respective readers. Furthermore, the lack of an explicitly stated hypothesis only influences insufficient understanding of the study’s purpose and findings.

The Methodology

Analyzing the research methodology involves assessing the measures utilized in testing the authenticity and correctness of the hypothesis within research. Consequently, Coughlan, Cronin and Ryan (661-662) outline a variety of specifics such as the design of the instrument, research design, and the collection of data, validity and reliability as imperative in assessment of the technique. In relation to the study, Evaristo et al.’s research clearly identifies the research design. Indeed, the research recognizes the qualitative approach as the main form of design that will be utilized in assessing the concept of distributedness and its implications on project management. In addition to this, Evaristo et al.’s research further describes the qualitative research design by using a realistic case study. The purpose of this is to relate the findings from the example with the proposed dimensions that the researchers have provided concerning the notion of distributedness.

Additionally, the appropriateness of the research instrument and its development further illustrate the advantage of the research methodology in general. Based on the qualitative design of the research, Evaristo et al. (179) utilize a case study as the main research instrument. The development of this design involves the use of authentic illustrations in order to establish rational and factual results. In this respect, the research presents a summarized description of a study involving European, American and Japanese corporations. This study enables the researchers to gain data that is appropriate and applicable in understanding the meaning of ‘distributed’ within the setting of project management. Nonetheless, a downside to the methodology is based on the lack of validity and reliability tests. This is because such tests are imperative in determining the trustworthiness, objectivity and consistency of research (Morse et al. 15).

Data Analysis

The analysis of data assumes credible responsibility especially in uncovering patterns or themes relative to the hypothesis of the research. However, the invalidity of data analysis techniques can establish obscure or miscalculated findings that may not necessarily correlate to the objective of the research carried out. Regardless of this, determining the efficiency of data an analysis involves understanding the form of data as well as statistical analysis performed (Coughlan, Cronin and Ryan 663). Based on this, it is evident that the system of data analysis in Evaristo et al.’s research is rather questionable. Even though the research design was qualitative based on its utilization of a case study, the utilization of past data does not indicate the integrity of the data and the findings respectively. Moreover, by utilizing past data without specifying the techniques of statistical analysis utilized, the research fails to authenticate the reliability of its data.

Presentation of the Findings

Usually, the findings from a study can undergo presentation in various ways. While guaranteeing that the data is understandable, then it is possible to illustrate data in a myriad of ways. In this respect, the research by Evaristo et al. presents its data in two forms. Foremost, it presents its findings in various categories with relation to the dimensions of distributedness. Even though this presentation is comprehensive, it utilizes considerable information from past studies in order to authenticate the results of the case study further. Secondly, the findings are also presented in a tabular illustration. This illustration negates the involvement of past research information utilized to explain the impacts of the dimensions on project management within organizations. As such, the information is rather simple and understandable. Furthermore, a tabular presentation summarizes the findings. This enables the audience to take note of the study’s complete results after discussion.

Discussion of the Findings

Indeed, assessing how well the results are explained involves considering a miscellany of factors. Firstly, do the findings revert to the review of literature? Based on this, the findings of Evaristo et al.’s research connect back to the review comprehensively. Even though the review mentions the concept of distributedness without delving into the explanation of its dimensions, the findings illuminate it by discussing such factors and their overall effect on project management. Additionally, the discussion also supports the hypothesis. Regardless of the inexplicitly stated research question, the discourse facilitates it by discussing the respective concept considerably through the utilization of the dimensions.

Conclusion of the Research

The conclusion also connects to the literature review. Even though it summarizes the study, it does not avert from the different aspects discussed and researched throughout the framework. In addition to this, the conclusion answers the research question significantly through the provision of an overview of the study’s findings. Lastly, the ending of the study recommends the importance of future research especially concerning the concept of distributedness in project management for geographically distributed systems.

Article 4

The article, Go (Con)figure: Subgroups, Imbalance and Isolates in Geographically Dispersed Teams, by Michael B. O’Leary and Mark Mortensen concentrates on the implications that the configuration of geographically dispersed teams poses on performance and functioning. For O’Leary and Mortensen, research based on virtual teams has focused considerably on demographic and temporal factors without assessing the role of configuration in these groupings (O’Leary and Mortensen 1-2). However, this is insignificant since such factors do not attempt to resolve most issues affecting the success of geographically distributed teams.

Literature Review

One of the major points of the article’s literature review is due to its establishment of the study’s context. Accordingly, an effective review institutes a wide milieu of the study and furthermore, determines the scope of the research (Boote and Beile 4). For O’Leary and Mortensen’s study, the review introduces socio-demography and special distance as factors that can be utilized in comparatively assessing the lack of research on an imperative factor such as configuration. In addition, the review possesses a logical organization that addressees these factors in an effort to support the study of the respective factor in relation to performance and operation in geographically diverse teams.

Aside from the context of the review and its organization, it is evident that the review builds upon past research in order to establish its study. Indeed, the utilization of such resources enables the review to be considerably concept-centric. As such, it enables the study to deviate from an author-centric perspective, which will further subject the study to scrutiny based significantly on bias and prejudice. Moreover, the literature review in O’Leary and Mortensen’s research utilizes past information that is based on an empirical nature.

The Research Question/Hypothesis

Unlike other previous research articles, the hypotheses in this study are explicitly stated. This identification enables the audience to aware of the study’s focus. The research questions also possess a certain aim or objective. Indeed, the research by O’Leary and Mortensen attempts to establish configuration as a factor worth considering to the likely impact it may pose on operation and performance among geographically diverse teams. In a wider context, the hypotheses set objectives that are based specifically on the study of the structure of virtual teams and whether they can be improved to augment their performance. In addition to this, the aims and objectives within the hypotheses complement the information represented within the article’s literature review.

The Methodology

In order to test the hypotheses of the research, O’Leary and Mortensen’s study adopted a quantitative design. The design has been explicitly stated and described thoroughly in terms of the process that will take place while experimenting on the research question. In this respect, the study implemented a quasi-experiment instrument, which enabled categorization of participants into groups based on distinct geographical configurations. However, there was absence of tests utilized to assess the trustworthiness of the quantitative instrument via validity and reliability tests.

Data Analysis

Data analysis within the research occurred through the utilization of statistical assessment programs. In the study, the ANOVA was utilized in order to test the different sets of hypotheses established after data collection. In addition to the use of descriptive statistics, measurement scales such as the Likert Scale were also utilized in order to rate the team members on dimensions that pose on an impact on functioning within geographically dispersed teams such as conflict and transactive memory. Even though the utilization of these quantitative techniques was appropriate, it was rather difficult to understand the information. This is in part due to the testing of different hypotheses as well as the utilization of conventional analytical measures, which can be substituted with simpler procedures.

Presentation of the Findings

The findings, similar to the previous studies, have been presented in two forms. Through categorization, it was possible for the study to provide a comprehensive discussion of the results. However, this particular presentation is rather consuming since it integrates information from past research in order to support the results of the experiment. Similarly, the tabular presentation is difficult to decipher. This is due to the impact of conventional statistical analysis methods. However, the presentation does not focus on historical research.

Discussion of the Findings

Indeed, the findings under discussion are connected back to the literature review. In this case, the study’s results focus on the challenges that can affect the performance of geographically dispersed teams in relation to the different forms of configuration tested. In addition to connecting back to the review, the discussion of the findings identifies the hypothesis by supporting it. In order to prove the influence of configuration on virtual teams, the findings utilize the findings as important factors in confirming this particular hypothesis.

Conclusion of the Findings

The concluding part of the research does not only summarize the study in a brief form. Apart from this, it sets the implications that the respective study imposes on future research. Accordingly, O’Leary and Mortensen’s conclusion establishes the significance that geographic configuration imposes in influencing dispersion among virtual teams. Furthermore, the ending proposes accountability in future research for subjects involving geographically situated subgroups and imbalanced groups because of their effect on performance among virtual teams. However, not much of the information within the conclusion establishes any precedent for research that may attempt to focus on this respective area.

Conclusion of the Critique

To this end, the review of the articles illustrates the standardized nature of research in the contemporary scholarly context. Since the critique focused on specific areas within any form of study, it is evident that research exhibits a framework that is common in all areas involving research regardless of the topic of focus. Furthermore, based on the evaluation of the research, it is evident that research is capable of integrating different designs in order to achieve its aims and objectives.







Works Cited:

Anderson, Claire. “Presenting and Evaluating Qualitative Research.” American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 74.8 (2010): 1-7. <>

Boote, David N., and Penny Beile. “Scholars Before Researchers: On the Centrality of the Dissertation Literature Review in Research Preparation.” Educational Researcher 34.6 (2005): 3-15. <>

Brantlinger, Ellen, Robert Jimenez, Janette Klingner, Marleen Pugach, and Virginia Richardson. “Qualitative Studies in Special Education.” Exceptional Children 71.2 (2005): 195-207. <>

Bruce, Christine. “Interpreting the Scope of their Literature Reviews: Significant Differences in Research Student’s Concerns.” New Library World 102.4.5 (2001): 158-165. <>

Coughlan, Michael, Patricia Cronin and Frances Ryan. “Step-by-Step Guide to Critiquing Research. Part 1: Quantitative Research.” British Journal of Nursing 16.11 (2007): 658-663. <>

Ellis, Timothy J., and Yair Levy. “Towards a Guide for Novice Researchers on Research Methodology: Review and Proposed Methods.” Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology 6 (2009): 324-337. <>

Evaristo, Roberto J., Richard Scudder, Kevin C. Desouza, and Osam Sato. “A Dimensional Analysis of Geographically Distributed Project Teams: A Case Study.” Journal of Engineering and Technology Management 21 (2004): 175-189. <>

Graneheim, U. H., and B. Lundman. “Qualitative Content Analysis in Nursing Research: Concepts, Procedures and Measures to Achieve Trustworthiness.” Nurse Education Today 24 (2004): 105-112. <>

Hall, Peter A. “Aligning Ontology and Methodology in Comparative Research.” Comparative Historical Analysis in the Social Sciences. Ed. James Mahoney and Dietrich Rueschemeyer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. 373-401. <>

Hanson, William E., John W. Creswell, Plano Clark, Kelly S. Petska, and J. David Creswell. “Mixed Methods Research in Counseling Psychology.” Journal of Counseling Psychology 52.2 (2005): 224-235. <

Johnson, Burke R., and Anthony J. Omwuegbuzie. “Mixed Methods Research: A Research Paradigm Whose Time Has Come.” Educational Researcher 33.7 (2004): 14-26. <>

Kaplan, Bonnie and Joseph A. Maxwell. “Qualitative Research Methods for Evaluating Computer Information Systems.” Evaluating the Organizational Impact of Healthcare Information Systems. Eds. James G. Anderson and Carolyn E. Aydin. New York: Springer, 2005. 30-55. <>

Kayworth, Timothy and Dorothy Leidner. “The Global Manager: A Prescription for Success.” European Management Journal 18.2 (2000): 183-194. <>

Kotlarsky, Julia and Ilan Oshri. “Social Ties, Knowledge Sharing and Successful Collaboration in Globally Distributed System Development Projects.” European Journal of Information Systems 14 (2005): 37-48. <>

Morse, Janice M., Michael Barrett, Maria Mayan, Karin Olson and Jude Spiers. “Verification Strategies for Establishing Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research.” International Journal of Qualitative Methods 1.2 (2002): 13-22. <>

O’Leary, Michael B., and Mark Mortensen. “Go (Con) figure: Subgroups, Imbalance, and Isolates in Geographically Dispersed Teams.” Organization Science 21.1 (2009): 115-131. <>

Powell, Anne, Gabriele Piccoli, and Blake Ives. “Virtual Teams: A Review of Current Literature and Directions for Future Research.” The DATA BASE for Advances in Information Systems 35.1 (2004): 6-36. <>

Thomas, David R. “A General Inductive Approach for Analyzing Qualitative Evaluation Data.” American Journal of Evaluation 27.2 (2006): 237-246. <>

Webster, Jane and Richard T. Watson. “Analyzing the Past to Prepare for the Future: Writing a Literature Review.” MIS Quarterly 26.2 (2002): 13-23. <>

Whittemore, Robin, Susan K. Chase, and Carol Lynn Mandle. “Validity in Qualitative Research.” Qualitative Health Research 11.4 (2001): 522-537. <>

Calculate your order
275 words
Total price: $0.00

Top-quality papers guaranteed


100% original papers

We sell only unique pieces of writing completed according to your demands.


Confidential service

We use security encryption to keep your personal data protected.


Money-back guarantee

We can give your money back if something goes wrong with your order.

Enjoy the free features we offer to everyone

  1. Title page

    Get a free title page formatted according to the specifics of your particular style.

  2. Custom formatting

    Request us to use APA, MLA, Harvard, Chicago, or any other style for your essay.

  3. Bibliography page

    Don’t pay extra for a list of references that perfectly fits your academic needs.

  4. 24/7 support assistance

    Ask us a question anytime you need to—we don’t charge extra for supporting you!

Calculate how much your essay costs

Type of paper
Academic level
550 words

How to place an order

  • Choose the number of pages, your academic level, and deadline
  • Push the orange button
  • Give instructions for your paper
  • Pay with PayPal or a credit card
  • Track the progress of your order
  • Approve and enjoy your custom paper

Ask experts to write you a cheap essay of excellent quality

Place an order