Research Methods





Research Methods

Cancers associated with the overall breathing system have become rather prevalent over the few years. Irrespective of clinical measures to mitigate continuance of such ailments, much study still needs to be performed to determine new ways of management. The article, Lung Cancer in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, illustrates this issue based on its focus on the consistency of lung cancer especially within patients suffering from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). As a population-oriented study, the research offers novel information concerning the occurrence and histological variant of this ailment over time. In addition to this, the study establishes the connection between the extent of airflow restrictions and the disease’s occurrence. The following discussion reviews the article with respect to the research design. Hence, the main aim of the critique entails a discourse on the research’s design as well as methodology and the implications they impose on the results of the research.

Discussion of the Study Design and Methodology

The Study Design

The study design is mainly built on its rationale of the research. Accordingly, there is limited information regarding the clinical aspects related to the progression of lung cancer among COPD patients. Despite the identification of emphysema and obstruction of the airflow verified as the key probable factors for this trend, the study aims at exploring other factors which may be rationally responsible for the development of this variant of cancer among persons suffering from COPD. Hence, with this rationale, the design incorporates qualitative and quantitative methods. This utilization of mixed methods is imperative and useful in establishing the validity of the respective research. Usually, a mixed method design exploits a range of ways through which a particular research problem can undergo exploration. This ensures that the best results are gained based on the outcome that each measure produces and contributes to the solution for the research problem.

The main aspect of qualitative design within this research involves the utilization of past case studies. This is important especially in applying the basis for the study. In spite of information concerning the existence of probable risk factors for lung cancer development, the objective of this research involves uncovering new data regarding the causation of this cancer type within the defined population. As such, establishing a foundation requires assessment of past studies. Information derived from such cases can enable the research to gain a significant background of the research problem. In addition, the research’s evaluation of past cases can provide it with the ability to understand historical limitations. As per the illustration, the study bases itself on the Body Mass Index, Airflow Obstruction, Dyspnea, Exercise Performance (BODE) Study (de Torres et al 914). This case is relevant to the research due to its coverage of the connection between lung cancer and COPD. The outcome of this particular research provided an effective basis for new research on the same topic.

Research Methodology

Based on the use of a mixed methods approach, the methodology incorporated possesses both qualitative and quantitative elements. One of these measures involves the utilization of interviews. Interviews are usually imperative especially in the collection of real time data from the research’s participants. In this context, personal interviews were used to gather information during the period of recruitment. Founded upon the study’s rationale, data based on sex, age, and the body mass index (BMI) was gathered (de Torres et al 914). As a complement to the interviews, questionnaires were also evident in the collection of the required information. In this respect, a certain questionnaire was utilized to ascertain the smoking history and status among the test subjects. Upon calculation due to the availability of such information, it was possible to compute the sum total exposure of the participants to smoking. Moreover, the collected data enabled the study to express the sum exposure into pack-years.

Alternately, statistical analysis was utilized aside from the qualitative techniques applied. Accordingly, the data that possessed usual distribution underwent description using the Standard Deviation (SD) factor. Non-normal distributed data was illustrated with the median. Much of the analysis utilized required qualitative input. This enabled the research to conduct a comparative assessment of patients with lung cancer and those without the disease’s variables (de Torres et al 916). In addition, qualitative data influenced the use of Univariate Regression Analysis, which was utilized to verify the potency of connection between the previously assessed variables (de Torres et al 916). The use of this quantitative model depicts the role that quantitative archetypes assume in establishing the validity of the information collected. Simply, the use of this model outlines the connection between mixed methods approach and the empiricism they supplement in the studies that utilize them.

Impact on Research Outcome

The use of a mixed methods approach and an empirical methodology posed an impact on the results of the respective study. The data gathered from qualitative/quantitative research design were assistive in establishing a suitable framework for the collection of relevant data. In this respect, qualitative methods were used to collect real-time data, which formed the basis for the variables used in the comparative analysis. Additionally, the implementation of quantitative devices enabled the origination of empirical findings. With techniques such as the Univariate Regression Analysis, comparative assessments were able to take place. This was effective especially in determining the possible risk factors responsible for the progression of lung cancer among populaces with COPD.

The impact of the design and the methods applied is also evident in the nature of the study’s outcome. With the data mainly arising from qualitative variables such as age, sex, and BMI, it was possible for the study to establish further units of assessment, which would be beneficial in elucidating the main factors behind lung cancer development among COPD patients. In addition, the combination of qualitative data and quantitative methods succeeded in determining the potential risk factors behind the causation of lung cancer among the respective test subjects. Aside from the aspects provided by past cases, the results of the study were capable of supporting previous data, and simultaneously offering new information for future research specifically in this matter.


In conclusion, the approaches integrated within the study are effective sufficiently. As such, they do not warrant any form of modification. Accordingly, using a mixed methods approach provides the study with a range of options to use in order to establish the best possible results. In addition, an integration of the qualitative and quantitative measures enabled the study to obtain an empirical foundation. For instance, the use of qualitative methods such as interviews and questionnaires provided the study with a set of factors that could be assistive in evaluating the respective test subjects. Moreover, empirical analysis of the collected data became solely possible via the use of regression analyses. Thus, with a combination of both approaches, the respective population-based study established probable risk facets that posed an influence on the development of lung cancer among patients with COPD.






















Work Cited

de, Torres Juan P., Jose M. Marín, Ciro Casanova, Claudia Cote, Santiago Carrizo, Elizabeth Cordoba-Lanus, Rebeca Baz-Dávila, Javier J. Zulueta, Armando Aguirre-Jaime, Marina Saetta, Manuel G. Cosio, and Bartolome R. Celli. “Lung Cancer in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Incidence and Predicting Factors.” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 184.8 (2011): 913-919. Print.


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