Human societies have systems of classification. The systems create imaginary boundaries by which the society assesses, judges and punishes its members. They also provide a clear outline of the roles to be played by each class. The medieval society was divided into three groups namely the church, nobility and peasantry (McNeese 27). To be a member of any of these estates, a person had to meet certain qualifications. Each of these estates had a role to play in the society. The church consisted of the clergy who prayed on behalf of the society (McNeese 27). The nobility consisted of aristocrats who became knights and fought wars on behalf of other members of the society (McNeese 27). Finally, the peasantry consisted of laborers who cultivated the land and produced food to be consumed by the church and nobility (McNeese 27). In many ways, the contemporary western society can also be classified into three modern estates, which are closely related to the three groups of the medieval society. The three modern estates include the government, nobility and commoners.

The government can be closely associated with the church estate of the medieval society. The church was tasked with providing spiritual leadership and praying for the society. In the modern society, the government’s main obligation is to provide effective leadership. The government enacts laws that ensure that all members of the society act in a manner that will not cause harm to other people. Furthermore, they try to reduce the societal gap between nobles and commoners. Furthermore, it is the duty of the government to ensure security and safety of its citizens. In a worst-case scenario, it has to engage in war, a function that was initially performed by the nobility estate of the medieval society. Just like in the medieval society where peasants and nobles estates were allowed to join the church, nobles and commoners in the modern society have an equal opportunity to hold government position. However, due to their financial ability, nobles tend to have an upper advantage over commoners.

The second modern estate in the contemporary western society is nobility. Just like in the medieval society, nobles in the modern society have a very strong influence in the society due to their financial ability. Unlike in the medieval society, nobles in the modern society do not participate in war. Some wealthy people might fund militaries or establish companies that manufacture weapons. However, they do not participate in actual fights. Millionaires and billionaires in the modern society control resources and own multi-national companies, which employ millions of commoners. Just like in the medieval society, nobles in the modern society provide their children with the best education. These quality education opportunities allow their heirs to reinforce their superiority and dominance in the society.

Finally, commoners form the last estate of the modern society. Commoners can be closely related to the peasantry estate of the medieval society. However, there are a few differences between commoners and peasants. Unlike in the medieval society, all commoners have an equal opportunity of upgrading their societal status to the nobility estate. Furthermore, peasants’ main duty was cultivation and production of agricultural produce that were to be consumed by the clergy and nobles. Although commoners in the modern society engage in farming activities, their duties are not limited to the agricultural sector. They are employed in many other industries in the society. Furthermore, a section of the commoners can be classified as middle class. Even though the wealth of middle class commoners is not enough to classify them as nobles, they boast of considerable amount of affluence that enables them establish small and medium sized businesses.





Work Cited

McNeese, Tim. History of Civilization – The Age of Absolutism. Missouri: Milliken, 2000. Print.





Roman Empire

The Roman Empire had a religion that was based on fragmented rituals, superstitions, traditions and taboos that had been collected over many years. Groups with opposing ideas were regarded state cults, whose members were prosecuted and punished. Christians were among those who faced endless persecution by authorities. The Romans had religious beliefs and values, which were not respected and adhered to by Christians and Jews. For example, Christians refused to offer sacrifices to the Roman gods and emperors. Such actions worsened the relationship between Christians and the Roman Empire. Religious differences and brutality from Roman authorities forced Christians to separate from the Roman traditional culture and form an opposition aimed at making Christianity an imperial religion.

A number of factors enabled the establishment of Christianity as an imperial religion. First, Christianity had a better appeal to the public. Unlike paganism, Christianity had a central belief that preached salvation in Jesus Christ. In addition, its strong spiritual beliefs, attracted many people especially women. Christians conveyed the message of hope and equality. The less privileged people in the society, and women who suffered from gender prejudice joined the outlawed religion. However, the conversion of Constantine ensured the success of Christianity. Despite the continued existence of paganism, Christianity had been legalized and its believers were allowed to practice their religion freely.

Christianity becomes a subculture of the Roman Empire because it was legalized and practiced alongside paganism. By the end of the 15th century, Christianity had become the imperial religion that was practiced in Rome. However, over the years, Christianity has become less distinctive. Modern believers are less motivated and determined compared to early Christians. In addition, modern Christians have accepted and adopted practices that contravene the religious beliefs of early believers. These differences led to the emergence of several Christian denominations that have separated from the Roman Catholic Church. The changes have weakened the uniqueness of ancient Christianity.


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