Managing Projects





Managing Projects

  1. Network Diagram


  1. Timing of Activities

In the first table, the top corners portray the earliest start and end times. An onward pass produces them. A similar method is used in showing time taken for an activity in the network diagram. The arrow at the bottom shows the last time to start, the float and the latest finish times. The last finish time a plan can undergo implementation externally or if the project needs to be finished quickly; can equal the earliest finishing time. In the node, all the information about the associations affects the timing of activities of the whole project.

The Total float; also known as the slack time, gains definition as the number of days a project can delay without derailing the project. If the activity has no float, it means it cannot delay anymore since there is no time to delay. The mathematical formula for calculating total float is:

Total Float =”Latest Start Time”(LST) “Earliest Start Time”(EST)

  1. Project Duration and Critical Path

The number of days that the project takes is 50. Determining this is possible via following the critical path where the last activity of the project is evident. This is used to calculate the time taken to complete the whole project. In this project, the critical path is:


In the first table 1, the float of the activity is 0, which means it is on the critical path, there is no float and therefore the activities should undergo completion on time, which is 50 days.

  1. Earliest Completion Date

The completion date will be on September 23. Without any other holidays and not counting the two days of the weekend, it takes 10 weeks to finish the project.

  1. Effect on Duration of Whole Project


a.) If activity delays by 1 day, the delay will not affect the overall project at all. This is because activity E is not on the critical path and has a maximum of two float days. This means that E has enough slack time. Thus, the sufficiency in slack time cannot interrupt the whole project by the one-day delay.

b.) If activity P has a two-day delay, there will not be significant changes to the completion time of the project. This is because P is not on the critical path and its total slack time is 3 days. Hence, the one-day delay will not change a thing.

5c.) If activity Q is one-day early, the whole project will be finished one day early as well. This is because the activity is on the Critical path. Therefore, a change in activities within the critical path will affect the whole project.

  1. Limitations of Network Diagrams

One of the disadvantages of using a network diagram is that if the activities of the project are too many, the diagrams will be significantly large and the finer details could be absent. Another disadvantage is that it is too tedious to calculate the time taken by the project. This is due to the variances in the activities. Furthermore, a wrong calculation in an activity results in the recalculation for the whole project. Different formats of making the network diagram make it difficult to understand. Additionally, checking all the activities in the diagrams can prove to be cumbersome. This is because if there is an error in the network diagram, the whole project will require undergoing a reevaluation.




Task 2

  1. Summary

One of the definitions of project management involves the direction and organization of human and subsequent resources throughout the process of a project. Project management utilizes organizational methods in order to achieve a group of set objectives concerning scope, project budget, time set and high quality standards for client satisfaction. Projects continue to provide techniques for organizations to display their creative forces instead of the usual planning. Additionally, they also illustrate a means of encouraging participation rather than displaying authority (Kreiner, 1992). Therefore, all the processes involved in management require being frequently used approaches in planning and managing a project. Numerous organizations have used project management and found it advantageous since it changes the manner of conducting business projects. In addition, project management provides new ways for managers to re-organize companies in order to achieve the best results.

  1. Introduction

Dennis Limited is a company trading in the sports and physical activities industry. The organizations that commission this firm include local authorities, charitable organizations and other privately owned organizations. Founded in 1999 in the larger city of England, the company depicted steady growth over the last decade. Presently, the company has eleven people within its faculty staff. The positions in the firm comprise a general manager, five lead consultants, three administration staff and two marketing officers. The local authorities commissioned Dennis Limited for a one-off special project, which entails initial opening and maintenance of a swimming pool, sports hall, a dry and wet changing facility, two dance studios and a state of the art gymnasium.

  1. Project Manager

I am the project manager contracted for ensuring that the first opening and operational requirements of the facility undergo identification. My main function comprises providing a report based on management of the respective project as a project manager. This position is quite daunting since it requires the utilization of numerous and disparate resources in order to achieve the objective. Furthermore, I will frequently alert my superiors regarding the project’s progress.

  1. The Project Life Cycle

A project has four phases. These phases comprise conception, development, realization and termination. Time is a major factor that binds projects. Additionally, the events taking place within projects undergo further categorization into different stages. These stages are development, implementation and termination (Miles, 1964). The development stage is usually divided into conceptualization and planning. Before implementation of the project, the process of development is carried out and termination follows. Following this logic, the management of a project receives delineation via the terms of planning, controlling and evaluation.

  1. Conceiving and Project Definition

Projects are usually distinct and explicit (Lock, 1992). The project’s definition and that of its objectives must include a common factor among all the included ones. If this carries on properly at the initial stages of the project, it will become goal-oriented. This will change it from focusing on the activities of the project. Having clearly defined goals makes the team concentrate further and be more committed to the completion of the project’s goals. This is because the project can undergo close observation more effectively and the results accounted for more easily. The objective of this project is to ensure there is responsible opening of the new facilities. The report will include the skills within the staff and the abilities required for the project’s completion.

  1. Planning the Project

Several factors will require consideration when planning the project. Factors such as the financial resources required, the time needed from initiation to completion and the quality of the new facilities undergoing construction are vital in the planning process.

  1. The Project Life Cycle

Concept phase

The first phase comprises coming up with the project members. They need to gather the information required to perform the project. Information about the client preferences, goals of the project and the feasibility studies need to undergo realization at this stage. In addition, this stage comprises the phase where the project proposal focuses specifically for the client’s approval.

Development phase

After the client approves of the goal and objectives of the project, the next step is the development stage. This stage entails planning of the work breakdown structure, which will govern the team members’ activities. In this phase, the project’s financial budget and determination of the critical path undergo implementation in order for it to run smoothly.

Implementation phase

Here, the physical work on the project undergoes performance. Members are busy and face the challenges that may be absent in the previous stages. Meetings are held at this stage to discuss arising problems. After such meetings, the manager writes a report that will help in forecasting the projects development and how to mitigate reoccurring issues.

Termination stage

In this stage of the project life cycle, all activities are near completion. The manager revisits every aspect of the project to ensure that every thing is per the customer’s specifications. In this project, the equipments put in place undergo evaluation in order to account for their functionality. An account of whether the project was done in time and within budget is taken. If everything adheres to the required standards, the manager declares the project complete and dismisses the team.

  1. The Project Goals and Range

The objectives of the project are to open a new sports and physical activity center for the local municipal authorities. The facility will offer have state of the art equipment that is of the highest quality. The project will be initiated and completed within the given period. We will ensure that the financial resources allocated for the project are utilized properly to keep them well within budget.

The range of the project includes design of the sports facility. This will include the floor plans and designing where the equipment will be kept. The project is tasked with installation of the equipment that will be used in the facility. This will include installation of the security systems and lighting equipment. Finally, handling of electrical sporting equipment and training of the facility staff on how to use them will be handled in the project.

  1. Implementation Approaches

Implementation of the sports and physical activity facility will be possible under the following stages:

Project preparation

This will entail the initial planning of the project. There will be inclusion of effective mobilization of the resources as well as the allocation process at this stage. The range and objectives of the project, risk assessment, and technical requirements of the project are other activities undertaken at the time of the preparation.


In this stage, two activities will undergo performance. The realization of the business map will concentrate on the designs made at the concept stage. Another activity that takes place in this stage is the delivering of the aspect ratios document.

Final preparation

In this stage, there will be training of staff regarding handling of the new equipment. Delegation of duties to the staff will also carry on at this stage. There will also be the testing of the security and lighting system to determine how well they will perform after the project undergoes completion. Additionally, there will be performance of a User acceptance test for the new facility. The staff will identify the pros and cons of that the new users found regarding the facility for rectification purposes.

Opening of the facility and additional support

After completion, there will be an inauguration of the new facility for public participation. If necessary, there will be training of new staff by the major instructors at the facility. Furthermore, there will be delivery of equipment in the test phase to the new facility for use.

Construction of Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)

After defining the goals, scope and implementation approaches of the project, the next step is the construction of the work breakdown structure. The idea behind this is to find out the actual activities that require application in order to complete the project. With the work break down structure, the project seems complete, but it comprises different incomplete parts and their relations. This means that the relationship between the whole project and the structured parts is directly proportional. At the beginning stages, the WBS allows one to see the requirements needed and the possible source of inconsistency. It ensures better management of the project by ensuring that the responsibilities undergo equal distribution. It eases the burden of delegation by ascertaining that the objectives gain adherence. Furthermore, it simplifies further delegation by portraying the progress in the project, noticing present mistakes and mitigating them.

Determining Project’s Relevant Needs

There should also be a determination of the project’s relevant needs. This will assist in ensuring that there is a regular notification and specification of quality standards. Examples of these needs comprise the equipment required for the project, the quality expected by the customer, and the respective test that requires application before the project is complete. The manager needs to exercise extreme caution while taking account of the project specifications. This is because making a mistake affects the project’s budget and time for completion.

Planning the Time Dimension

It refers to the time needed for completion of the project. The time taken to complete the project has a direct relation to the quality standard of the project. The goal behind the time dimension is to tell the manager the exact amount of time required to complete the project. Elements of time that need determination comprise, the time needed for each step, time for initiation of the project and the maximum time for delaying each step. Additionally, the time dimension should be accurate enough to enable a precise estimation of time.

Planning the Cost Dimension

Cost refers to the amount of financial resources required by the project and that are within the budget. Once construction of the WBS is complete, the cost requires estimation. Budgeting is the allocation of financial estimates necessary for the completion of the project. In order to make these estimations, the manager needs to account for every personal expense within each activity. A vital role of the budget is to supervise the cost of the project while it undergoes application. This method assists in avoiding unnecessary expenditure.


It entails directing the project according to the approved plans and handling any unforeseen occurrences that may occur during the project. During this stage, it is crucial to ensure that there is a constant flow of communication between the manager and the other staff members. Clear goals and the range of the project also require implementation.

Developing an Auditing Tool

In the recent past, the accomplishment of a project underwent display in terms of whether it accomplished its stated goals within the agreed time and within the budget allocated. Nowadays, the effectiveness of the final product determines the success of a project. Therefore, there is construction of auditing tools that measure the success of the project. This enables the company to enumerate itself against other companies in order to note the areas for improvement. An auditing tool shows where the project is most effective in its departments and, therefore, provides an opportunity for other departments to learn from them.

Increased Awareness of both Apparent and Real Benefits

The best way to improve this sector is to illustrate the ways in which management of the project is beneficial. Therefore, doing this requires implementing good communication practices within the company staff. Additionally, the project manager can perform Awareness campaigns in order to sensitize the staff members regarding the project development. This could change the staff responsiveness concerning the achievement of certain goals and objectives. Furthermore, communicating by showing examples will also allow the staff to have a visual idea of the project’s real benefits of the project. Consequently, publicizing the more successful parts of the organization and showing results from a methodology will encourage more enthusiasm among faculty members within the organization.

Improving the Information Flows Through the Project

Improving the conveyance and reception of information will allow information to reach a wider audience. Most companies find it advantageous to communicate strategic information to the staff. This enables the staff to be more informed and motivated in carrying out their duties.

Communication builds confidence for the staff

By encouraging employees to achieve individual goals, communication may assist employees in exuding motivation while performing the project. Additionally, allowing the staff to possess more information concerning a project is also beneficial. This is because the more the team knows about the project, the better they become at carrying out their duties. The more their leaders adapt to certain methodologies the more their teams adopt accept and use those methodologies. Over time, these practices become the norm and as a result, the project undergoes application more effectively.

  1. Control and Evaluation.

There is also significant need for more concentration when it comes to comparison between the project plans and budget and the outcome of the project. Plans and budgets mayneed revision in the earlier stages of the project. Consequently, it is important to create mechanisms that offer cost control. These mechanisms are in the form of functioning routines that necessitate well-designed managerial structures. Additionally, the evaluation undergoes application in terms of goal fulfillment. The reason for this is that this method of evaluation aims at identifying performance among the staff. The manner in which the evaluation relays results indicates the needs of the project. Monitoring and cost control are the main activities during the execution and implementation stages.

  1. Leadership

The main purpose of the project manager is to act as a mediator between the company management and the project staff. He or she should motivate the employees and provide a favorable work environment for them. The project manager should also know and account for the activities performed by everyone in the project. Additionally, the environment should allow everyone taking part in the project to provide his or her views without any form of constraint.

  1. Projects Risk Assessment

The project’s management undergoes definition as the process that oversees the project from initiation to completion. The risks that come with this project can range from a change in the project requirement, to inadequate staff, expertise and time. These risks undergo classification as either low or high, depending on their probability of occurrence. In the sports and physical activity project, the client can solve changes in the client’s specifications with more involvement during the initial stages. More training for the staff can solve the lack of technological proficiency. Finally, the staff should exercise greater involvement in order to finish the project in time.


It is vital for the project to reach its conclusion in time. The factors that directly affect this are budgetary and time allocations. The project manager has to stay alert during all the stages of the project. Without directing the staff and controlling the resources, changes and possible risks, the project could go beyond the intended range. Control is a broad issue when it comes to project management. It entails controlling the flow of information from the company executive and staff. Presentation of the project should depend on how best the manager thinks he can portray the report.


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