Literature Review

Literature Review















Literature Review

Creativity enables the development of original products, and it encompasses using innovative ideas. This leads to the development of relevant and useful products. The level of creativity differs across different departments and different organizations. Some jobs are routine, and they rarely require any input of creative ideas. However, other jobs involve embracing creativity in developing unique products, which will benefit the organization by giving it a competitive edge. Some departments within the same organization require different levels of creativity. Some of the departments are especially concerned with the mandate of developing new and original products, and this requires them to be more creative compared to other departments in the same organization. As Binnewies et al. (2008) observe, organizations have to embrace creativity if they intend on making innovative products. Leaders in different organizations have realized the need for encouraging creativity in the era of globalization (Baucus et al., 2007; Afshari et al; 2011).

Having a positive regard of oneself, being competent, as well as embracing autonomy are some of the different forms of mental health, which are part of creativity. Other forms include having an integrated functioning and aspirations. Contrary to popular opinion, age does not determine creativity. Supporting job creativity within the organization will encourage creativity among the employees irrespective of their ages. Job resources determine the level of creativity within an organization. Giving employees the resources they need, such as encouraging them to experiment with different ideas encourages creativity (Binnewies et al., 2008).

Hiring people who are experts in their field is an advantage since they can use the knowledge they have to expound on different ideas. However, employers sometimes use people with different levels of expertise, and this requires them to identify other methods of encouraging creativity in the workplace. Intrinsically motivated people work at a task because they find it fascinating and exciting. They consider a task a personal challenge to them, and they feel satisfied when working at it. Employers have a role to play in enhancing the creativity of the employees. Organizational leadership determines the level of creativity in the workplace. Transformational leaders encourage creativity among the employees by encouraging change and supporting innovation (Afshari et al., 2011).

Firms encourage their employees to be creative by empowering them. They do this by encouraging employees to do things outside the norm as they try new ways of solving problems, different methods of decision making, and development of new and different products, procedures and services for their organizations (Baucus et al., 2007). Transformational leadership is unique because it recognizes the importance of change in every aspect of the organization, including change in the way that leaders manage and lead their organization (Afshari et al., 2011). Organizations cannot be able to encourage any level of creativity when they do not change the employees’ environment, and when they continue having bureaucratic processes (Baucus et al., 2007).

Intrinsic task motivation

Applying intrinsic task motivation does not require the provision of many resources from the organization. It requires the participation of the employees and the employer in determining the project to do. Organizations can also apply creative thinking skills. This incorporates the use of people’s creative characters, employment of analogies, and the ability to see things from different perspectives. While, not all people can do this with exemplary results, the organization can create an enabling environment for the employees. People’s moods can hinder or enhance their creativity. Being fearful and passive hinders creativity. People who are always afraid of taking risks and those who do not feel secure are not able to apply their creativity. On the other hand, contrasting moods of happiness and anger appear to enhance creativity. A happy person is willing to interact with different people and different environments, and this encourages creativity. An angry person who concentrates on his task appears to be more creative.

Leaders can take several measures to encourage creativity within the organization. The first recommendation is for an organization to transform its leadership. Leaders need to change their perspectives towards managing people and organizations. They need to encourage change by encouraging their employees to do things differently. They need to encourage innovation by encouraging their employees to come up with innovative products. This will require the management to allocate job resources, which will enable employees to have greater control. Job control enables employees to have more opportunities by learning more about different things. They are able to apply this knowledge in coming up with creative ideas and products. An organization needs to have a different perspective concerning reward systems and treatment of failed products. Organizations that encourage employees to continue with innovations despite having a failed product will continue encouraging employees to be creative. The management should not only reward the products and services that are a success, but they should also reward the employees efforts and level of commitment towards coming up with a program.

The management needs to create an enabling environment for employees to interact with each other, as this will enable them to share the knowledge they have with each other. When designing work group projects, the management should ensure that people from different departments with different expertise work together. This will enable employees to learn from each other. In addition, it will enable employees to have a different perspective of issues. They will have an open mind when thinking about different things, and this will encourage creativity and innovation within the organization. Creating an enabling environment also entails allowing employees to work on different things and experiment with different products. Employees can come up with new products once they learn more about the existing products, study the market needs, and look for knowledge in diverse places. They need to experiment with different ideas until they develop a product. Some employees have many ideas in their minds, and unless they will have no way of implementing their ideas, unless they are given the space and resources they need to experiment with different ideas. This process will enable the employees to determine the feasibility of their ideas.

Management should empower the employees. The management should ensure that the employees have greater control for the organizations. This will make them feel more responsible, and they will work towards ensuring the success of the product. The management should include the employees in the decision making process, and should encourage them towards finding ways of solving problems, especially the problems that appear within their departments. This will make the employees feel that they matter to the organization. Employees who feel as part of the organization, and that their input matters to the organization want the organization to succeed. This will make them develop ideas that will set the organization apart, and which will give the organization a competitive edge.

The management and leadership of organizations have an important role to play in encouraging and fostering a creative culture within the organization. The management has the resources needed to ensure that the employees implement the ideas they have. It can encourage the employees to come up with creative ideas in different ways including having a flexible leadership that encourages change and innovation. However creative the employees are, they cannot implement their creative ideas without the support of the management.


Afshari, M., Siraj, S., Ghani, F. M., & Afshari, M. (2011). Leadership and creativity. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5 (10), 1591-1594

Baucus, S. M., Norton, I. W., Baucus, A. D., & Human, E. S. (2008). Fostering creativity and innovation without encouraging unethical behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 81, 97-115

Binnewies, C., Ohly, S., & Niessen, C. (2008). Age and creativity at work: The interplay between job resources, age and idea creativity. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 23 (4), 438-457


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