International Marketing (Lateef)



International Marketing (Lateef)














International Marketing (Lateef)

Question 1


Globalization is an advancement that has affected all sub sectors of the international market. Accordingly, there are various contradictory principles between international equivalence and restricted adjustments of the marketing mix of a typical company present in various intercontinental markets. This complex trading environment is intense because of the alterations in the major global developments regarding the marketing sub sector. Based on these principles, corporations in various international markets have had to make certain managerial decisions that encompass the economies of scale and trade requirements facilitated by several constituents regarding worldwide standardization and local adaptation of the marketing mix strategy (Albaum and Duerr 2011). For instance, Coca Cola has encompasses principles within the two models in order to formulate a comprehensive strategy that addresses all influential components.

Corporation Proceedings

Coca Cola is one of the renowned companies in the international market, which produces non-alcoholic beverages. It has a vast range of products that caters for the needs of a large percentage of the general population in terms of age, physical fitness, preferences, and quantities. Its strategy incorporates production, marketing, and distribution of various carbonated beverages. This global corporation operates in several countries in all continents. Through well-organized joint ventures, subsidiaries, and business contracts, Coca Cola has gained popularity in more than two-hundred countries in the planet. According to recent surveys regarding the operations of this international commercial organization, Coca Cola sells more than six million carbonated drinks on a daily basis (Bradley 2005). This sales dominance in the global market is because of the implementation of a comprehensive strategy that focuses of the four components of the marketing mix.

Some of the major markets for the products of this business organization include North America, Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. Commodities such as Fanta, Coca-Cola, and Sprite have increased the annual returns of the Coca Cola Company in the past decade. As indicated by some of the top managerial personnel in the company, the integration of international and local concepts has been helpful in expanding the physical and operational facets of this corporation. A SWOT analysis of this organization indicates its global dominance as one of the strengths that has facilitated the attainment of high returns as well as improvement of its various product brands (Cavusgil, Deligonul and Yaprak 2005). Additionally, the managerial team of this corporation recognizes the need to incorporate local marketing principles in order to attain a large market share in the global trade setting. This has been possible through the maintenance of a steady environment between the identification of stability between consistency and adjustment of the local and international trade environments.

Standardization and Adaptation

In terms of standardization, some experts acknowledge that the global marketing is developing at a steady and fast rate in all sub sectors. Owing to these global trends, the marketing mix of a well-organized commercial organization operating in various countries around the world ought to consider the standardization of these components in all intercontinental markets. Additionally, this ideology recognizes that the needs of consumers in terms of a certain product or service are similar in all trade environments (Czinkota and Samli 2007). For this reason, the standardization process will not vary the operations of a particular market. Some of the major benefits of the standardization of the marketing mix and other relevant strategies include the economies of scale a well as the realization of a dependable representation of the product brands worldwide. Additionally, the costs involved in planning and controlling the local and global markets are minimal owing to the principles of standardization.

Conversely, the supporters of adaptation argue that cultural differences are major influential factors in the global market, an element that disregards standardization a feasible marketing strategy (Usunier and Anne 2009). For instance, some business analysts indicate that various countries differ in the level of economic, trade, and technological advancements. For this reason, it is difficult to regulate these markets by use of a common market strategy with reference to the marketing mix of a certain commercial organization. Moreover, the limitations stipulated in national documents governing a particular country may influence the market normalization process. Accordingly, these experts recommend the adaptation proceedings as the most suitable technique of expanding a business enterprise in the global context (Burca, Fletcher and Brown 2004). Nonetheless, such maneuvers interfere with the product brands of such a corporation because of the increase in operational expenditures as well as the complex nature of unifying the large-scale market.

Based on these ideologies, it is important to acquire equilibrium between standardization and adaptation with respect to the marketing mix of such an international company as Coca Cola. Companies, which adapt alterations in the local business environment while still focusing on the trends in the international market, benefit from the differentiation and advancement of its product brands. Additionally, other components of the marketing mix aid in physical and operational expansion of the business institution. An evaluation of the proceedings in Coca Cola indicates the benefits of incorporating these two marketing strategies in the implementation of an all-inclusive business plan encompassing various intercontinental settings (Craig and Douglas 2005). For instance, the main managerial team governing the proceedings of the company strives to satisfy the needs of their customers in all countries while suppressing the restrictions generated by geographical and cultural differences.

Marketing Mix

As part of the marketing mix, the products manufactured by Coca Cola aim at addressing the needs of a certain group of customers in the international market. All its products are non-alcoholic drinks aimed at catering for a market comprising of individuals within various age brackets, social classes, and religious backgrounds. For this reason, Coca Cola has become a major producer, distributor, and market of soft drinks worldwide.  Additionally, the company integrates local preferences of a certain market segment while still promoting standardized brands fro the international market. For instance, in most western nations, the diet Coke is a familiar brand that has aided the company in increasing its returns. This is because of the promotion of healthy products, in line with the rampant campaign conducted by different organizations regarding the need to ingest healthy foodstuffs (De Mooij 2010). For this reason, this soft drink with minimal calories is more popular in these developed countries as opposed to the third world nations. Additionally, the company has a peculiar design for its bottles as well as an even motif and unique color combination on the packaging as a way of developing its brands. Through these constituents, the corporation has been benefiting from the adaptation elements that identifies and integrates the cultural differences exhibited in various countries.


The management of Coca Cola has well-founded operational framework that has aided in distributing its products to all continents. The main units include Africa, North America, Asia, and the Middle East. These entities are self-governing and are more influential than the subsidiaries founded in each market segment. These geological divisions exist due to the combination of standardization and adaptation elements. For instance, the identification of the distribution channel in a particular nation entails a comprehensive design that exemplifies standardization of the international market. Nonetheless, the distribution framework contains various opinionated and legal limitations that encompass the adaptation element of the marketing mix and strategy. Additionally, in terms of the place constituent, the Coca Cola enterprise is the main bottler and distributor of the soft drinks in the global setting (Feick, Roth, Deighan and James 2003). Through franchises controlled by local control centers, the corporation trains and managers the operations of the bottling companies. Likewise, the cordial relationship with the bottlers as enabled the management of the senior organization to increase the efficacy of the workers ad the strategic plans.


Coca Cola has competitive prices aimed at attracting a wide range of customers as well as maintaining the existing clients. The approach used in pricing the products encompasses the familiarity of the specific brand in a particular region and the competitiveness of the brand under consideration in the local and international markets. For this reason, the pricing of products manufactured by the Coca Cola Company has been encompassing the adaptation component of the marketing mix (Ghauri and Cateora 2010). Nonetheless, an analysis of the proceedings in different countries illustrates a difference of expenses incurred by the corporation in various production and marketing settings. This includes the taxes, wages of the labor force, and the expenditures of obtaining raw materials within the region. For instance, in the western region of the European continent and the North American area, the price of these products is higher due to the high costs of production and distribution.


This commercial organization has incorporated a standardized promotion approach combined with an adapted version of the local regions. This has enabled the management to reduce the operational expenditures used to advertise these products as well as promoting equity among the various brands produced by the business institution (Lee and Carter 2009). Over the past two decades, the business enterprise has used a similar theme to promote their commodities. It has been using global advertisements that suppress the cultural differences in the market segments.  Since its main target market in developed regions such as Europe, America, and Asia is the younger generation, the main components encompassed in its advertisements entail descriptions that attract the attention of this group of the general population (Fletcher, Bell and McNaughton 2004). In contrast, the advertisements directed to the African market contain more mature content because of the social and cultural aspects of the region. Likewise, the technological incorporations are different in various market segments. Technologically advanced regions such as Europe and Asia have a higher appreciation for technology developments. For this reason, Coca Cola has integrated the internet and social media as major promotion approaches.

Executive Summary

Coca Cola has been benefiting from its comprehensive marketing strategy. Through this trade plan, the management of this commercial institution has modified the elements of the marketing mix in order to attain customer satisfaction as well as expand its operations to other global market segments. Although most of its proceedings are in accordance to the principles of standardization with respect to the international trade environment, the management realizes the need to integrate crucial aspects of the adaptation ideologies in order to attract customers from all social and cultural backgrounds.


The worldwide recognition of Coca Cola as a major brand in the beverage market is because of the all-inclusive program that encompasses all marketing principles promoted by the global forces. A comprehensive framework unifies the local markets. This market structure is crucial in strengthening the central trade environment (Tedlow and Abdelal 2003). The comprehensive marketing program regarding the standardization and adaptation aspects of the marketing mix have enabled the company to expand its operational and physical facets in the international market as well as increasing its returns.

Question 2

The internationalization of a commercial organization entails the gradual engagement in the international market following a comprehensive market research regarding the competitiveness, cultural components, and legal restrictions present in the trade environment. This enables a firm to expand its physical and procedural aspects to other geological zones of the planet while promoting a more differentiated brand. Various approaches result in the internationalization of a business institution. This includes the stage approach, global method, and the Uppsala technique (Jeannet and Hennessey 2004). The stage approach argues that corporations commence their business transactions in the local market before seeking trade relations in other nations. In contrast, the global technique entails organizations that attain substantial competitive advantage from their inception because of the attainment of raw materials from different regions as well as the exportation of the finished commodities to other nations.

Another major model of the internationalization process in the business context is the Uppsala approach. According to this supposition regarding the integration of a comprehensive and feasible marketing mix, the firm under consideration progressively advances its commercial transactions in the international market. Nonetheless, the process of attaining a substantial market share in the foreign country experiences such hindrances as legal limitations, cultural differences, and technological advancements (Keegan and Green 2011). This model emphasizes that these differences are more influential factors than the geological distance between the focal operational unit of a company and the market segments in the international environment. For this reason, the company under consideration commences its business proceedings at a region that facilitates an unplanned commercial transaction before seeking a larger market share in other well-organized international business entities.

Based on these findings, Coca Cola Company operates on the Uppsala internationalization model. This is evident through the comprehensive scrutiny of existing and potential market segments in the global setting. Before establishing a distribution unit in a country, this corporation conducts a thorough investigation with the intent of identifying the unfulfilled needs of the targeted customers and the cultural differences in the market. Additionally, it identifies the political system and legal restrictions in the country in order to modify its proceedings accordingly (Keegan and Schlegelmilch 2001). This process has enabled the management of Coca Cola to promote its brands depending on the external forces governing a certain international market segment. For instance, the company targets a young generation in countries within the European, Asian, and American continents. This is because of the differences in technology developments. Moreover, the design and pricing of the commodities is different in these market divisions due to the dissimilarities in tariffs and operational expenditures (Kumar 2000).



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