The article by Sheila Grossman and Jean Lange describes various theories that form a basis for the assessment on aging. Gerontology refers to the study of the biological, psychological and sociological aspects of aging. It involves the study of social and mental changes in individuals as they grow older, the impact of the aging populace to the society, and the process itself. The article titled Theories of Aging as Basis of Assessment, suggests that, in order for a nurse to develop the best practice in healthcare, he/she must be know the population that he/she nurses.

Introduction and Background Information

The introduction section of this article has detailed information that facilitates the comprehension of this medical issue. For example, the authors of this manuscript analyze the main points in accordance to the problem statement, which states that understanding various societal elements is a crucial aspect in the effective execution of the official duties of a nurse. Accordingly, the background information constituted in this manuscript is relevant in he evaluation of this clinical topic because the measures employed by nurses and other medical professionals with reference to treating various patients depend on social, psychological, and cultural aspects.

Presentation of the Article

The main objective of this article involves the initiation of a framework that gives a holistic evaluation regarding guided care of the aforementioned population. The literature review included in this article is informative and supports the features highlighted in the problem statement and objectives. The main points contained in this document relate to information contained in current and useful literature resources. Grossman and Lange state that two main theories coined by various nurses explain the process of aging. The functionality Consequence theory contends, “Aging adults experience environmental, socio-cultural, and psychobiological consequences that impact their functioning.” 1(77) The theory of thriving based on the notion of “failure to thrive” 1(77) maintains that thriving is a “holistic life-span perspective that considers the impact of environment as people age.”1(77) These theories are useful in understanding the concept of aging, but neither is adequate in explaining the geographic, cultural, spiritual, and educational aspects of aging. Based on the well-defined hypothesis, the authors propose that viewing aging from psychological, biological, and social theories will enable a nurse develop the right skills for efficient healthcare of the elderly population.

Study Design and Methods

In terms of the sample size used in the research process, the article focuses its study on the middle age population roughly between the ages of 45 and 65 and people over the ages of 65. The various statistical categories used in the analysis involves the age of the ailing patients and the occurrence of certain ailments within such population categories. Accordingly, these statistics was appropriate in explaining the importance of the physical, social, and psychological assessment of the elderly.

The authors also suggest assessing the individual’s social support system. 1(78) Essentially, this helps the elderly manage physical decline. Successful retirement in adults characterized by fulfilling relationships enables them accomplish their set goals. Sociological theories, such as the activity theory, which emphasizes the need to be active even in old age, help the elderly prolong their lives. The article asserts that being active in old age through pursuing of individual goals leads to a longer life. 1(79) Biological theories relate to the physiological changes in the body as a person grows older. Knowledge acquired from studying various processes in the body with reference to these theories equips the nurse with the ability to assist the elderly in managing their nutrition, sleep, electrolyte and hormonal imbalances, illness, among others. The article also outlines a case study where a patient’s psychological, social and biological features were assessed to help him manage his aging. 1(82)

Results and Conclusion

It is possible to generalize the results of this research process. In terms of their implications, these findings are useful in many settings and are beneficial as a benchmark for further studies. A proper assessment enables a nurse in providing adequate and well-informed guidance and counseling to the patient. Through the article, the nurse facilitates the best practice for the aging individual.

According to the authors, psychological theories give insight on the actions and changes in behavior, attitudes, and personality of people as they age. The focus of psychological theories is the development of ego and the challenges that come with it. Role change of an individual, social status and gender are all factors that affect a person, as they grow older. 1(78) Psychological theories include Maslow’s Human Needs theory, Jung’s Theory of Individualism, and Erikson’s Stages of Personality Development. These theories provide a nurse with the skill of helping the elderly accept loss and adapt to their changing lives. With the help of these theories, the nurse helps the elderly appreciate their accomplishments, adapt to physical changes and find a new meaning in life.



Reference List

  1. Grossman S, Lange J. Theories of aging as basis of assessment. Medsurg Nursing. 2006; 15(2):77-83.
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