Environmental Issues in India

Environmental Issues in India




Environmental Issues in India


Since time immemorial, India has faced various environmental issues. It was worst hit during the period between 1947 and 1995. To counter these issues, the country has made significant progress in ensuring that appropriate measures are implemented. The World Bank experts have opined that the highest level of progress was observed during the period of 1995-2010 (Shaban and Sattar, 2011). Despite having placed appropriate strategies in solving the environmental problems, the country is currently struggling to attain environmental quality. The main difficulty curtailing this achievement is pollution, which is still a persistent problem in India. It has been attributed to being the primary cause for diseases, long-term livelihood issues, as well as health concerns (Sinai, 2002). The condition was been consistently worsening as the country seeks to find viable solutions that will redeem the Indian people from this dilapidating problem. The paper seeks to evaluate the environmental issues faced in India with particular attention being paid to water pollution.


Causes of Environmental Issues

Several opinions have been forwarded in elaborating on the causative elements worsening environmental problems in India. Some experts have opinioned that economic development is the major cause of pollution in India. Contrary to this, some have suggested that this form of development offers a solution to environmental problems as it assures quality management of pollutants and effluents from the industries (Shaban and Sattar, 2011). According to empirical evidence provided by research studies on nations such as Singapore, England and Japan, the expected standard of environmental quality in India should surpass the aforementioned nations as some have larger population densities as compared to it (Saini, 2002). From this deduction, it is valid to mention that population density is not a sole factor that contributes to the deterioration of the environment quality in India.

Primary Environmental Issues

When analyzing the various environmental concerns that are prevalent in India, they include resources depletion, agricultural degradation of natural lands, loss of biodiversity, environmental degradation through pollution, livelihood insecurity, deterioration of public health, and loss of preservation of the existing ecosystems (Saini, 2002). Based on research, one might classify pollution as the dominant form of environmental concern. It is further worsened by careless waste disposal that contaminate surrounding water bodies, poor sewage treatment leading to break out of severe water borne pandemics, water contamination due to human waste diverted in the water sources and outlets and poor garbage management. Based on the evidence provided, it is clear that varied reasons that are attributed to environmental quality deterioration in India.

Water Pollution

India has faced on the most persistent environmental concerns from a global scale. This issue is water pollution, which is worsened by release of contaminants into the water sources (Shaban and Sattar, 2011). Untreated sewage is the main contaminant that has led to the disruption of water quality in ground and surface water. In terms of generation of water and it subsequent treatment, it has been observed that there is a large gap that is consistently widening as more water bodies are contaminated. The confusing aspect is that India does not lack the resources to ensure  water treatment is achieved but rather incompetencies in water management departments is the contributory element that is facilitating the existence of this gap. The machinery used for water treatment is poorly designed to generate quality water that can be reused by the population (Shaban and Sattar, 2011). Additionally, the electricity systems are unreliable hence derailing the generation of water with the resulting outcomes being less purified water that cannot be used of domestic purposes. Poor management of the workforce has also been attributed as a facilitative cause of mediocre water treatment and generation process (Kumar and Kar, 2010). Reports indicate that many workers are often absent from work which reduces the capacity of the water treatment plants to work to the optimal efficiencies in ensuring that the population received quality water for usage.


It is valid that India faces many environmental issues. However, the main problem that is plaguing the nation is lack of access to quality and fresh water, which is caused by contamination of the water sources. With the ever progression and expansion of the industrial sector in India, the water requirements have increased hence depleting the water resources that are available for use by the Indian population. Through diversion of water outlets to the industries, Indians have suffered from water scarcity as well as a water contamination because such industries have continuously exploited water sources. These sources are currently being destroyed by chemicals released from the industries, sewage, and agricultural waste from the population as they survive on this water for their livelihood.



Kumar, G. and Kar, S. (2010). Sustainable behavioral change related to environmental sanitation in India: Issues and challenges. Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 14(3), p.107.

Saini, D. (2002). Contemporary Issues and Processes in Environmentally Sustainable Development of Industrial Estates in India. Corporate Environmental Strategy, 9(3), pp.277-283.

Shaban, A. and Sattar, S. (2011). Water security and sustainability in urban India. International Journal of Global Environmental Issues, 11(3/4), p.231.

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