1. According to your textbook author, why is the aviation industry a continuing target of terrorists and criminals?

Commercial aviation is an integral part of international commerce. It is a soft target given that it generates significant revenues and provides employment for individuals. Criminals and terrorists target aviation as a means of crippling economies and try to curtail the benefits and revenues associated with this form of travel.

  1. According to your textbook author, what are the three general components of aviation operations?
  2. Commercial services operations
  3. Private operations or general aviation
  • Military operations
  1. How does the ownership of commercial airports in the U.S. generally differ from the ownership of aircraft operators?

Commercial airports are publicly owned whereas aircraft operators may be either publicly owned or private entities.

  1. Explain how U.S. commercial airports obtain revenue for their operations and profit?

Commercial airports receive revenue from passenger boarding with a majority of them being publicly owned entities. Revenue is generated from aircraft that is in the airport whether in service or not provided in scheduled service.

  1. Explain how U.S. commercial aircraft operators obtain revenue for their operations and profit.

Commercial airports have varied sources of revenues. Non-passenger and passenger revenues are the primary sources of operating income for commercial airports. Parking and ground transportation, rental car charges, land and non-terminal charges, food and beverage, retail and duty free outlets, food and beverage, services outlets and hotels are some examples of the non-passenger revenues generated in commercial airports.

  1. How do the roles of the Federal Aviation Administration and the Transportation Security Administration differ in their responsibilities for the U.S. aviation industry?

The FDA is tasked with regulation of operations and players in the aviation industry. On the other hand, the TSA is tasked with oversight of security procedures and functions in the aviation industry in the United States. The FDA deals with ensuring that regulations and high standards of operation are maintained by the operators. TSA deals with matters relative to security in the aviation industry.

  1. The major U.S. commercial aircraft operators must adopt a specific TSA security program that requires the aircraft operator to designate certain security positions within their company. What is the name of the security program and what specific security positions does it require the aircraft operator to have? ( 3 points)

DCA Access Standard Security Program (DASSP) to provide commercial operators with Armed Security Officer/s (ASO). There are various positions that can be availed by the operator namely Aircraft Operator Security Coordinator (AOSC) and the DCA Access Standard Security Program (DASSP) Security Coordinator (CSC) and the Armed Security Officer/s (ASO).

  1. What were the goals of the 911 attacks according to your textbook author?

The aim of the 911 terror attacks on the world trade center in New York was to cripple the aviation industry which is a highly lucrative market. It employs a large number of professionals directly and directly. In addition the attacks also sought to destabilize the economy of the United States by instilling fear in the population and the international investors over insecurity in the country.

  1. Explain why several of the 911 hijackers who triggered the Computer-Assisted Passenger Prescreening System (CAPPS) were allowed to board the aircraft without any special screening of their bodies or carry- on baggage?

The hijackers had not been subjected to adequate and modern prescreening technologies to verify their identity and their baggage. The systems in place were inadequate to highlight any risks of occurrence of a terror attack.

  1. What FAA passenger screening point policy failure greatly increased the hijacker’s success in carrying weapons aboard the aircraft?

The pre-screening policy was inadequate to provide immediate screening of the terrorists. They were screened earlier rather than prior to boarding the flight.

  1. List the four fundamental failures in U.S. aviation security that the 911 Commission Report highlighted.
  2. Lack of a watch list
  3. Inadequate vetting in issue of visas and passports of the United States
  • Inadequacy of searches of the passengers as identified by the CAPPS
  1. Inadequate measures to prevent and deter airplane hijackings
  2. Underestimation of the threats posed by terrorists
  3. What were the general tactics used to take over the aircraft once the hijackers were on board and the plane was in flight?

They undertook a suicide hijacking which was their primary tactic. They relied on the un-preparedness of the cabin crew of the four aircraft that they had hijacked. In addition, they understood the TSA and the FDA were unaware and ill-prepared to combat suicide missions on commercial flights.

  1. List the seven recommendations made by the 911 Commission to address the weaknesses leading to the successful 911 attacks on the U.S. aviation system? ( 3 points)
  2. Attacking terrorists and their respective organizations
  3. Prevention of the continued growth of Islamism extremism
  • Preparing and protecting the country from terrorist activities
  1. Establishing a national counterterrorism center
  2. Sharing information across state agencies and with international allies and their agencies
  3. Organizing amercing defenses to counter and destroy extremism and terror relate activities
  • Unity of congress in addressing extremism and its effects in the united states


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