A4: Writing Assignment

A4: Writing Assignment 3




A4: Writing Assignment 3

Organizational learning is an area of information within an association theory that studies the continuous process, which enhances a collective aptitude for acceptance, sensibility and response to both internal and external changes. For effective organizational learning, models and theories about the manner in which an association learns and adapts are studied (Kezar, 2005). It is a broader area of study that is more than the total information held by workers. Systematic incorporation and collective understanding of innovative knowledge are required for organizational learning and hence, leads to combined action, which involves risk taking as testing. Understanding how organizations learn or fail to learn by using a contemporary business example is vital in the study of organizational behavior.

Organizational learning was recognized globally at around 1990 despite it being present in administration literature for many years. In order for organizations to learn, they have to adopt the models that were first proposed by Argyris and Schön in 1978 (Kezar, 2005). These models include single- and double-looping. Either single-looping learning model involves the modification of actions by individuals, groups or organizations according to the disparity between anticipated and obtained outcomes. Whereas, double-looping learning involves questioning of the governing philosophy and it often entails changes such as modifications in strategy and comprehensive revision systems. Understanding these models marks the first step of learning in an organization.

The Toyota Production System (TPS) is an example of a learning organization that works towards attaining productivity and efficiency (Marksberry, 2013). TPS has been able to facilitate learning within its organization by incorporating three prime foci within its system: people, procedure and technology. It had to go through some learning processes before it could establish itself as a learning organization. Learning is not a unitary theory; therefore, organizations get to learn the different kinds of learning. These are expressive conditioning and learned apprehension, knowledge acquirement and imminent, and habit and skill learning.

Knowledge acquisition and insight combines cognitive improvement, processes, nurturing of desirable skills and capabilities. For effective learning, TPS used this learning approach, which is required in problem solving cases and often results to behavioral changes. Habit and skill learning enables an organization to improve on the wrongdoing and focuses on refining proper behavior. Finally, emotional taming and cultured anxiety is the most difficult type characterized by three defenses: denying the message, failure to hear messages and downsizing that those heads do not understand the situation. This is because organizations tend to stick to their original behavior since they were psychologically affected in recent mistakes (Marksberry, 2013).

Organizations are normally faced with one type of anxiety when embracing learning techniques. In anxiety 1, companies are unable to solve complex problems. In order to destabilize this anxiety, TPS had to undergo disconfirmation whereby it was taught to recognize that their present strategies do not work (Tapping & MCS Media, 2010). This helped it in learning new strategies. Secondly, is creation of anxiety where it generated a feeling of guilt, shame or fear for not being associated with any thing new? This can be referred to as anxiety 2. This step created the hunger for change and learning within TPS. Finally, generation of psychological protection is the last step. This step engages parallel systems that widen new norms that support learning within an organization.

Parallel system is based on four conjectures that facilitate learning in organization (Lipshitz & Friedman, 2007). Under this system, leaders have to study something new. They have to be able to overcome their personal civilizing postulations and distinguish new ways of going about their businesses in a complete new way. They have to deal with and overcome both anxiety 1 and anxiety 2. This step helps an organization to learn because their leaders are already psychologically protected. Leaders must also form a change administration group commonly known as steering committees. These committees learn something new before teaching other members of the organization their lately acquired knowledge. These committees are important because they provide an accommodating environment for the leaders to convey and handle their concern and insecurities. They also offer initial tests for the expected change without interrupting the present culture. Their third role is to generate and assess problem solving and task forces that deal with specific alterations within an organization. Finally, it is assigned the role of communicating the importance of embracing change together with how the alterations can be achieved.

At this stage, the steering committee has to undergo the learning process (Collison & Parcell, 2004). The have to be able to understand the importance of embracing change and build up the norms within itself. The steering committee then develops and designs the organizational learning process. Through this design, the workforce gets to learn of the new techniques being used. Therefore, a specific alteration program has to be generated by the task force, which helps the continuous flow of information throughout the organization. Moreover, the steering committee has to ensure that they have sustained communication all through the process. Finally, the committee must develop mechanisms for continuous learning within the organization.

Learning within an organization is a collective responsibility, which involves both the employees and the administrators. For effective learning, organizations have to incorporate the progression, skills and the people involved. TPS has been able to have continuous knowledge within its organization because it employed the steps that are required in a learning organization. It has become a global faction, which illustrates learning within an organization.



Collison, C., & Parcell, G. (2004). Learning to fly: Practical knowledge management from some of the world’s leading learning organizations. Chichester, West Sussex: Capstone.

Kezar, A. J. (2005). Organizational learning. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.

Lipshitz, R., Popper, M., & Friedman, V. (2007). Demystifying organizational learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Marksberry, P. (2013). The modern theory of the Toyota production system: A systems inquiry of the world’s most emulated and profitable management system. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor & Francis.

Tapping, D., & MCS Media, Inc. (2010). Lean office demystified II: Using the power of the Toyota production system in your administrative, desktop and networking environments. Chelsea, MI: MCS Media.

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