The Story of an Hour by Kate Chopin

 

 

Name:

Tutor:

Course:

Date:

The Story of an Hour by Kate Chopin

Kate Chopin’s The Story of an Hour starts at the house of one Louise Mallard, a docile and loyal wife to Brently Mallard. Mrs. Mallard was also suffering from a condition that made her heart weak. This was precisely the reason why her sister Josephine took great measures to break the alleged news of her husband’s death. The story spirals into an ironic certainty, for Mrs. Mallard’s heart complication in the opening of the story eventually becomes her demise. Mrs. Mallard was emotionally dissatisfied in her marriage and after hearing the news of her husband’s death, she is overwhelmed by tears of release joy rather than sorrow (Chopin 24). Surprisingly, the news invigorates her since for the first time she was in a different commitment situation. Towards the end of the story, Mr. Mallard suddenly enters the front door and scares his wife into a heart attack. Consequently, she dies.

Gender Criticism

Kate Chopin’s works have been applauded as being one of the few publications to usher the way for feminist independence. In particular, the short story exposed the institution of marriage to the whole universe for its true state. “The Story of an Hour” explicitly displays the genuine feelings of a woman who experienced being trapped within her matrimony (Chopin 27). In the era in which she lived, there were only two solutions for her to realize the sought after personal liberty: she or her spouse must pass on. The repressive trend of her marriage is noticeably depicted in the short story. The writing also implies Mrs. Mallard hid her private emotions of repression and unhappiness, as it is clear her acquaintances and relatives imagined that she would be distraught over the tragedy that she could affect her own wellbeing (Chopin 31). In the late 19th century, women in the United States avoided discussing about sexual themes explicitly. Instead, they deliberated about these social elements in a way that referred to their spouses’ success or failure. They discussion covered a wide array of topics such as politics, sports, arts, and fashion to flaunt their prowess in those subjects. However, they had little opportunity to offer their opinion on such matters. Kate Chopin was placed in a generation when women were restricted to the private circles of the household and were often refused contribution in the public. Chopin’s Mrs. Mallard was contentious because not only was she vocal but also because she pursued liberal ideologies (Chopin 33). The thought of a woman pursuing and enjoying pleasure after getting the news that her loyal husband of many years had passed on was an appalling suggestion, even if possibly some modernized women could relate.

Feminist criticism analyzes gender politics in publications and defines the understated collection of masculinity and femininity and their position as far each other is concerned, their status and alignment within literature publications. Therefore, the intention of feminism is to transform the debasing perception of women so that all females will comprehend that they are significant partners. The goal is to ensure that each woman is an esteemed individual having the same privileges and rights as man. Mrs. Mallard was fully aware of the proper way for women to carry themselves. However, her ideas, feelings, and emotions were conflicting in that they were not conservative. From the story‘s commencement, she was introduced as Mrs. Mallard only once after which the story reverted to referring to her as “she” for the rest of the story. After the incident, the tone with which the protagonist is addressed changes drastically as the author attempts to indicate Louise’s mounting female identity. She has ultimately forged an identity and a new existence for herself, a life that surpassed the restrictions of marriage. This mystery and namelessness allocated to her represents the loss of uniqueness and identity of women that patriarchy is interested in maintaining (Chopin 36). It took approximately sixteen paragraphs for the narrator to recall her name again. This was when she had ultimately become liberated. After she had been free physically and emotionally, she was called Louise.

Patriarchal attitudes took center stage in the minds of American people in the 19th century and Chopin’s work motivated women to perceive their situations using a critical eye since they were unjustly treated because of their gender as female. In the story, Kate Chopin portrays the domination of women in the patriarchal society of 19th century America through the archetypal Southern plantation residence. By representing the domestic circles, the author depicted women as lacking the ability to fully comprehend their own feminine conceptions and articulate their own interests. An unvarying image in her narrations, the plantation home is a representation of domesticity that locates Chopin’s need for women contained in the private sector to be more vocal, presenting their fears and illusions and linked to a patriarchal society. In tackling how these women protagonists manage in domestic settings, the author both illustrates how these characters implement agency as well as how they are deprived of agency in 19th century America (Smallwood, Harris, & Brackett-Vincent 56). To comprehend the drastic nature of Chopin’s message, the audience must acknowledge the long-established Victorian civilization in which Chopin resided, a society in which gender roles were conventionally delineated. In the character of Mrs. Mallard, Chopin creates a woman who only just realizes that after her husband died, that a different life exists. However ironically, Chopin also illustrates Louise’s sense of autonomy to be a disastrous fantasy, since in reality such a dream of freedom out of wedlock was an unattainable goal for women in the 19th century. Through this story, Chopin triggers the general topic of the significance of a woman’s individual identity devoid of the institution of marriage. In conclusion, femininity was still a foreign subject in the social setting when Chopin wrote the short story (Chopin 67). Consequently, her cause took a longer while to be accepted among literary enthusiasts and scholars. A lesser part of the society was averse to addressing such matters in public while the other half were afraid of the consequences of dealing with the consequences of such actions. The society at the time was bent on impressing the patriarchal interests at the expense of gender equality and recognition that it would have been impossible to seek acknowledgment and readership.

Reader-Response Criticism

Most of Chopin’s narratives were not adopted for publication mostly because they contained moral questions and controversies. Consequently, most editors saw in them an overemphasis in female dominance and sexual freedom. Since “The Story of an Hour” was published in late 18th century, a few years after it was completed, it is easy for the audience to understand the significance of moral grounds as a good reason for rejection (Chopin 77). Marriage was deemed a holy institution (Milan 12). Divorce was not common in the 1800s and if one happened, men were allocated a higher priority concerning legal and political influence. Changes in the constitution merely transferred the powers to African-American men and secluded women. Naturally then, a female author who discussed about women demanding independence would not be received very positively, particularly one whose book talked about a woman celebrating in the demise of her husband (Kennedy, & Dana 187).

The fact that Mrs. Mallard is punished for her misplaced happiness with her life at the conclusion of the narrative is not sufficient to absolve either the protagonist or the author. Even though “The Story of an Hour” is succinct, Chopin illustrates her excellence as a writer in diverse ways. The analysis of the short story by Fred Lewis Pattee in A History of American Literature since 1870 revealed that the strength of the narrative originated from what could be termed as a natural inclination for story telling totaling almost in creativity (Pattee 78). The book noted her unique competence to portray character and context yet completely. All of these features are captured in “The Story of an Hour (Barnet, Sylvan, & Hugo 56). The story starts with Chopin informing the audience that Mrs. Mallard was suffering from “a heart trouble.” A rapid scanning of the term might confuse the reader into assuming that Mrs. Mallard suffered an actual heart disease. However, Chopin selected her phrase carefully. She needed the audience to understand that Louise Mallard’s heart condition was not exactly literal (Barnet et al. 78). Instead, it was more of an emotional state that had been imposed in her for all those years that she had been under her husband’s dominion (Constantakis 78).

Another example of Chopin’s ability to produce an excellent narration facilitates the audience to comprehend that the message being passed on was more than a story. This depiction entails Mrs. Mallard’s response to the news of Bently’s demise (Barnet et al. 82). She did not receive the news, as many wives would have, with an immobilized inability to acknowledge its meaning. If an analyst had stopped at this sentence, they would have wondered about the type of marriage that would stop Mrs. Mallard from becoming struck with sorrow. The audience might have wondered why the dutiful wife was not bombarded with thinking about her future as a widow. Nevertheless, in the next section, she is presented as a bereaved wife definitely grieving as she weeps with “wild abandonment (Barnet et al. 88).” At this stage, most of the audience would be appalled. Definitely, a woman in a broken marriage would not continue with such a dispensation. In this moment, Chopin provided a pointer towards an existing problem, but also revealed that the freshly widowed woman was not startled by the relevance of her lonely state. The author expounds upon this when the narrator states that Louise Mallard “would have no one follow her.” While the consequence is that no one would accompany her to her upstairs room, the audience is left with questions concerning whether Mrs. Mallard was silently announcing that no one was expected to influence her life decisions again (Barnet et al. 93).

It is relatively easy to reach a similar conclusion to Larsson’s. This was that the context was basic but definitely complete. The delivery of the news occurred in a strange room within the Mallard’s residence. Consequently, the exposition of freedom happens in the bedroom, and Mrs. Mallard’s death takes place on the stairway that goes up to the front door opened by her husband (Barnet et al. 108).

A section of analysts argues that Chopin rightfully allocates the emotional features natural in Mrs. Mallard’s situation. Even though the feelings in Mrs. Mallard’s bedroom were irrefutable, the momentary pausing of intelligent thinking eliminates from the audience the urge to relate with the widow’s sorrow and instead permits them to occupy a neutral position as an observer, as enthusiastic as Mrs. Mallard to understand the looming phenomenon that would possess her (Barnet et al. 116). Other analysts applaud Chopin’s references of pure scientists who proposed the “survival of the fittest” principle as the motivation behind her incessant attraction with contemporary practices and the limits that applied to women only. In “The Story of an Hour” the author implicitly evaluates marriage as a way of life, perhaps as an outcome of her scientific investigation of traditions, but this is carried out in a cunningly tempered manner (Barnet et al. 167).

The actual background of the author plays a major role in influencing the overall outcome of her publications. Chopin grew up mostly without a father figure and was definitely an outcome of her Creole background. She was mostly guided by her mother. Given that she spent her younger years in a female-dominated setting, it was easy for her to avoid the gender stereotypes that were rife during her era. This also contributed to her non-conformity with the socially standards and topics of her time in literature (Chopin 67). In reality, Chopin attempted to defy the social norms and assumed the ownership of her husband’s company after his death. These tendencies, as well as her deep interest in scientific elements, her early childhood, and her inclination for feminist protagonists would appear to signify that uniqueness, liberty, and satisfaction were as relevant to Chopin as they were to the protagonists in her narratives. It is motivating to be aware that over a hundred years ago, women still occupied the same position and status that they enjoy today. Definitely, women have gone through and profited immensely from diverse innovations and transforming attitudes. However, for a woman, discovering her actual destiny and path in life may prove to be a futile endeavor. “The Story of an Hour” was Chopin’s way of illustrating these challenges in an effective and entertaining way (Chopin 45). The diverse analyses and conclusions made concerning the major themes of femininity, gender equality, social perception and others are all useful in the process of understanding Kate Chopin and her intentions in the short story. Without a doubt, Chopin managed to transform a very short story into an excellent work of art (Barnet et al. 167). Even more important is the significance of her works to the revolutionary individuals particularly women. Without causing a disturbance to the social order, she managed to write about a controversial issue in 19th century Europe without necessarily amassing the negative reactions that were typical in the patriarchal society (Chopin 64). Future writers on the same topics have referred to Kate Chopin as the pioneer of female liberation literature given that she paved the way for contemporary authors.

 

Works Cited

Top of Form

Top of Form

Top of Form

Top of Form

Top of Form

Top of Form

Top of Form

Barnet, Sylvan, and Hugo A. Bedau. Current Issues and Enduring Questions: A Guide to Critical Thinking and Argument, with Readings. Boston: Bedford/St. Martins, 2014. Print.

Chopin, Kate. Awakening and Selected Stories of Kate Chopin. S.l.: Signet Classic, 2015. Print.

Constantakis, Sara. Novels for Students: Presenting Analysis, Context, and Criticism on Commonly Studied Novels. Detroit, Mich: Gale, 2006. Web. 29 April 2015.

Kennedy, X J, and Dana Gioia. Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing. Boston: Pearson, 2013. Print.

Milan, Spears D. Developing Critical Reading Skills. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2008. Print.

Pattee, Fred L. A History of American Literature Since 1870. New York: Cooper Square Publishers, 1968. Print.

Smallwood, Carol, Colleen S. Harris, and Cynthia Brackett-Vincent. Women on Poetry: Writing, Revising, Publishing and Teaching. Jefferson, N.C: McFarland & Co, 2012. Print.

Bottom of Form

Bottom of Form

Bottom of Form

Bottom of Form

Bottom of Form

Bottom of Form

Bottom of Form

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Political Patronage

Name:

Institution:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Word Count: 1660

 

Political Patronage

Introduction

            The political process in every country differs according to the electoral laws. Similarly, various nations have their own approaches to electing representatives as well as service delivery to the electorate. For example, some favor the democratic ideals while others follow the autocratic system in solving problems in various parts of the country. In both instances, the leaders insist that their actions serve the national interests of the citizens. However, both practices are beholden to the core supporters of the leaders who are rewarded regularly in order to maintain their loyalty (Parker, 2015). While the tactics used to remain in power are divergent, the need to retain the support of a certain portion of the population’s coalition emerges. Governance structures in all countries are designed to reward a select pool of citizens thereby placing special interests above the national one, sometimes with disastrous results.

Body

Part 1

In The Dictator’s Handbook, Bueno de Mesquita asserts that a leader needs to control the revenue streams in order to keep a small group of elite people happy. Such a technique is injurious to the economy because the amassing of wealth for a few individuals cripples funds meant for other vital developmental projects. In particular, it limits the availability of capital for infrastructure while making life unbearable for a majority of the citizens. The high standards of living occasioned by such acts results in a large unemplyment ratio thereby reducing the chances of a productive labor force (Parker, 2015). Moreover, these workers may resort to conducting strikes in protest of the enrichment of a few people hence igniting a class war that is detrimental to the social fabric. For example, it could degenerate into civil warfare thus causing death and destruction to property. Similarly, the author lays an emphasis on paying supporters just enough tokens to keep them loyal. It is hoped that placing them on a leash by channeling lucrative tenders, money, and even properties while maintaining a stern warning for wavering would reduce the pressures of scrutiny and even abandonment (Smith and Mesquita, 2011). Nevertheless, it is impossible to place a cap on the level of greed or spending habits required to facilitate such a strategy. In fact, the more appeasement is shown to such individuals, the greater their zeal for more gifts thereby holding the government into ransom. Accordingly, offering of certain favors to cronies may result in the installation of poor managers in state agencies who lack the competence to run these organizations hence increasing embezzlement of funds, lowering quality of service delivery, and weakening institutional capacity to change the lives of the citizens. Likewise, Mesquita urges leaders to be friendlier to the military rather than the people and to ensure aid gets to such agencies faster than to the latter. Such a technique is flawed because it builds resentment in the population while militarizing the state (Bueno and Smith, 2011c). In most instances, it causes human rights abuses as well due to the penchant for powerful armies unleashing terror on the citizenry in order to whip them into avoiding dissent. By so doing, investor confidence dwindles thereby reducing the probability of foreign direct investment. Similarly, the use of personalities for political expediency and then dumping them as situations demand is also hazardous to the market since it reduces predictability and increases speculative tendencies (Parker, 2015). Traders will be less inclined to consider such a country a friendly business environment while the regime will lack credibility to honor other pledges. Such sentiments tend to determine the rate of transactions flow involving imports and exports as well as the creation of legacies for future reference. Therefore, this volatility creates a hostile economic climate, which hinders growth in various industries.

Part 2

In many African countries, it is evident that Western civilization has contributed greatly to their transformation. In particular, there has been widespread condemnation of autocratic systems of governance in favor of democratic principles that lay an emphasis on equality especially in wealth distribution (Bueno and Smith, 2011d). Nevertheless, the economic reforms envisaged in such a strategy tend to restrict the political class into making certain concessions to allow opposition groups the chance to participate in wealth creation and distribution. Therefore, it becomes a threat to the existing patronage networks through neopatrimonialism. Insistence on opening up the democratic process in order to include a transparent and more accountable system is prone to destabilizing current suppliers and contractors whose connection to the ruling class is firmly rooted in ancestry and political patronage (Gibson and Hoffman, 2002). Notably, it seeks to decrease opportunities for bribery thereby denying some entities slash funds used to finance other projects. Therefore, recipients begin to experience financial difficulties making them unable to support their supporters located in both urban and rural areas. As such, the electorate begin to feel isolated by their leaders and are filled with loathe since they imagine the latter are just enriching themselves. Accordingly, they begin to oppose such officials and stir unrest demanding the installation of one of them, as he/she may understand their pain and issues much better. Once such plans gain traction, it becomes a movement. Denial would only lead to the election of opposition candidates.

Moreover, African countries have shown affiliation to the big man syndrome in which friends, relatives, tribesmen and supporters of elected officials feel entitled to trample certain statutory requirements for their benefit due to the power of incumbency (Parker, 2015). However, an increase in foreign aid conditions would severely dent this image and reduce the proceeds channeled to them. Therefore, rulers tend to do anything necessary to remain in power. They may reject any changes in the status quo as it has a direct bearing to their political prospects (Bueno and Smith, 2011f). It is evident that the stipulations forwarded by donors are aimed at increasing industrialization and urbanization. Whereas such changes are admirable in a mature democracy, their noble objectives target the very channel through which rulers maintain their influence. In fact, in some regions, this patronage network provides economic stability due to investments in the local business sector. Accordingly, such reforms are considered disruptions that weaken a politician’s hold to power.

Part 3

Foreign aid ensures that developmental projects are accomplished using the right mechanisms. For example, they emphasize on the need for open procurement processes thereby enlarging the pool of participants in securing government contracts. As such, it reduces corruption in such institutions hence lowering the risk of pandering to special interest groups once officials come into power (Parker, 2015). In addition, it facilitates the adoption of proper accounting principles whereby all expenditures are scrutinized for conformity with the aid agreements. Consequently, this eliminates loopholes in different sectors thus limiting chances of fraud especially by supervisors of these projects (Bueno and Smith, 2011b). In addition, these gestures demand for fair employment procedures such as having a diverse workforce and equal yet non-discriminatory payment of workers. Rather than employ people of a certain ethnicity, gender or nationality as a reward for votes, external aid enhances the employment of people from varying backgrounds hence helping to initiate similar tactics in other public or private enterprises. It would be difficult to run an administration that favors such an approach in foreign aided agencies alone thus, replication in other arms of government will follow. Gradually, more people will have jobs and the salaries will be standardized resulting in a productive labor force, which enhances GDP growth.

Similarly, most of this aid is dependent on implementation of the statutes and pegs additional funds on the enforcement of the agreement to the letter. While some details may be omitted, having such arrangements forces regimes to respect the law regardless of one’s position in the society. Failure to do so would result in dire consequences such as sanctions. The latter is a threat to the economic stability of any nation since it suspends international trade with other partners hence stifling the market place. By insisting on following the law, a vital tenet of democracy is adopted (Bueno and Smith, 2011a). Moreover, such a tool focuses on the benefit of the masses as opposed to self-fulfillment of individuals. For instance, it is used in the building of hospitals, roads, schools and even running charitable organizations, which are all communal events. It dose not seek to benefit a few people. By so doing, it raises awareness through civic education about the duties of an active citizenry in demanding accountability from their elected representatives (Beueno and Smith, 2011g). Members of the public become enlightened on the potential that the administrators have to transform their livelihoods hence they become proactive in public affairs. They become vigilant and creative in setting solutions to their problems in the hope of overcoming poverty and other societal ills thereby keeping the government in check to fulfill election pledges. Therefore, such vigilance results in economic empowerment while any deviation leads to civil disobedience, which is a sign of a state’s maturity.

Conclusion

Leadership varies among individuals and countries as well. Globalization has increased the need for democracy by laying conditions for equality in various spheres of public service. Nevertheless, dictatorial regimes also exist. In both instances, the officials claim to be working for the people in order to realize their personal and national aspirations. It is evident that both systems acknowledge the power of influential supporters hence seek to appease this constituency in order to remain in office. However, this patronage occurs to great cost to some sections of the society due to the unequal distribution of resources and wealth. As such, politicians have to deal with the backlash occasioned by such discriminatory behavior since it is an affront on their continuity to remain in power (Parker, 2015). Whereas the issuance of foreign aid is sometimes seen as helping in the democratization process, its rejection is viewed as a shrewd way to maintain the loyalty of core supporters by most leaders, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the conditions set by donors are noble and intend to initiate economic reforms, which are critical in improving accountability within state institutions as well as increasing public participation in issues affecting their country (Bueno and Smith, 2011e). Therefore, succumbing to special interests needs is detrimental to a state although it is effectively used by most leaders to maintain power and influence.

 

 

 

 

 

References

Bueno, Bruce, and Smith, Alistair.2011. The Dictator’s Handbook: Why Bad Behavior is almost always Good Politics. [Protests: a] New York: Public Affairs.

Bueno, Bruce, and Smith, Alistair.2011. The Dictator’s Handbook: Why Bad Behavior is almost always Good Politics. [Selectorate: b] New York: Public Affairs.

Bueno, Bruce, and Smith, Alistair.2011. The Dictator’s Handbook: Why Bad Behavior is almost always Good Politics. [Building Infrastructure: c] New York: Public Affairs.

Bueno, Bruce, and Smith, Alistair.2011. The Dictator’s Handbook: Why Bad Behavior is almost always Good Politics. [Solvency: d] New York: Public Affairs.

Bueno, Bruce, and Smith, Alistair.2011. The Dictator’s Handbook: Why Bad Behavior is almost always Good Politics. [Taxation: e] New York: Public Affairs.

Bueno, Bruce, and Smith, Alistair.2011. The Dictator’s Handbook: Why Bad Behavior is almost always Good Politics. [Protests: f] New York: Public Affairs.

Bueno, Bruce, and Smith, Alistair.2011. The Dictator’s Handbook: Why Bad Behavior is almost always Good Politics. [Aid: g] New York: Public Affairs.

Gibson, Clark, and Hoffman, Barak. 2002. “Dictators with Empty Pockets: A Political Concession’s Model of Africa’s Democratization.” American Political Science Association 1-42.

Parker, Roberts. 2015. Political Logic of Foreign Aid. The Pennsylvania State University.

Smith, Alistair, and Mesquita Bruce. 2011. “A Dictator’s Handbook for the President.” Foreign Policy 1-8.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Political Patronage

Name:

Institution:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Word Count: 1660

 

Political Patronage

Introduction

            The political process in every country differs according to the electoral laws. Similarly, various nations have their own approaches to electing representatives as well as service delivery to the electorate. For example, some favor the democratic ideals while others follow the autocratic system in solving problems in various parts of the country. In both instances, the leaders insist that their actions serve the national interests of the citizens. However, both practices are beholden to the core supporters of the leaders who are rewarded regularly in order to maintain their loyalty (Parker, 2015). While the tactics used to remain in power are divergent, the need to retain the support of a certain portion of the population’s coalition emerges. Governance structures in all countries are designed to reward a select pool of citizens thereby placing special interests above the national one, sometimes with disastrous results.

Body

Part 1

In The Dictator’s Handbook, Bueno de Mesquita asserts that a leader needs to control the revenue streams in order to keep a small group of elite people happy. Such a technique is injurious to the economy because the amassing of wealth for a few individuals cripples funds meant for other vital developmental projects. In particular, it limits the availability of capital for infrastructure while making life unbearable for a majority of the citizens. The high standards of living occasioned by such acts results in a large unemplyment ratio thereby reducing the chances of a productive labor force (Parker, 2015). Moreover, these workers may resort to conducting strikes in protest of the enrichment of a few people hence igniting a class war that is detrimental to the social fabric. For example, it could degenerate into civil warfare thus causing death and destruction to property. Similarly, the author lays an emphasis on paying supporters just enough tokens to keep them loyal. It is hoped that placing them on a leash by channeling lucrative tenders, money, and even properties while maintaining a stern warning for wavering would reduce the pressures of scrutiny and even abandonment (Smith and Mesquita, 2011). Nevertheless, it is impossible to place a cap on the level of greed or spending habits required to facilitate such a strategy. In fact, the more appeasement is shown to such individuals, the greater their zeal for more gifts thereby holding the government into ransom. Accordingly, offering of certain favors to cronies may result in the installation of poor managers in state agencies who lack the competence to run these organizations hence increasing embezzlement of funds, lowering quality of service delivery, and weakening institutional capacity to change the lives of the citizens. Likewise, Mesquita urges leaders to be friendlier to the military rather than the people and to ensure aid gets to such agencies faster than to the latter. Such a technique is flawed because it builds resentment in the population while militarizing the state (Bueno and Smith, 2011c). In most instances, it causes human rights abuses as well due to the penchant for powerful armies unleashing terror on the citizenry in order to whip them into avoiding dissent. By so doing, investor confidence dwindles thereby reducing the probability of foreign direct investment. Similarly, the use of personalities for political expediency and then dumping them as situations demand is also hazardous to the market since it reduces predictability and increases speculative tendencies (Parker, 2015). Traders will be less inclined to consider such a country a friendly business environment while the regime will lack credibility to honor other pledges. Such sentiments tend to determine the rate of transactions flow involving imports and exports as well as the creation of legacies for future reference. Therefore, this volatility creates a hostile economic climate, which hinders growth in various industries.

Part 2

In many African countries, it is evident that Western civilization has contributed greatly to their transformation. In particular, there has been widespread condemnation of autocratic systems of governance in favor of democratic principles that lay an emphasis on equality especially in wealth distribution (Bueno and Smith, 2011d). Nevertheless, the economic reforms envisaged in such a strategy tend to restrict the political class into making certain concessions to allow opposition groups the chance to participate in wealth creation and distribution. Therefore, it becomes a threat to the existing patronage networks through neopatrimonialism. Insistence on opening up the democratic process in order to include a transparent and more accountable system is prone to destabilizing current suppliers and contractors whose connection to the ruling class is firmly rooted in ancestry and political patronage (Gibson and Hoffman, 2002). Notably, it seeks to decrease opportunities for bribery thereby denying some entities slash funds used to finance other projects. Therefore, recipients begin to experience financial difficulties making them unable to support their supporters located in both urban and rural areas. As such, the electorate begin to feel isolated by their leaders and are filled with loathe since they imagine the latter are just enriching themselves. Accordingly, they begin to oppose such officials and stir unrest demanding the installation of one of them, as he/she may understand their pain and issues much better. Once such plans gain traction, it becomes a movement. Denial would only lead to the election of opposition candidates.

Moreover, African countries have shown affiliation to the big man syndrome in which friends, relatives, tribesmen and supporters of elected officials feel entitled to trample certain statutory requirements for their benefit due to the power of incumbency (Parker, 2015). However, an increase in foreign aid conditions would severely dent this image and reduce the proceeds channeled to them. Therefore, rulers tend to do anything necessary to remain in power. They may reject any changes in the status quo as it has a direct bearing to their political prospects (Bueno and Smith, 2011f). It is evident that the stipulations forwarded by donors are aimed at increasing industrialization and urbanization. Whereas such changes are admirable in a mature democracy, their noble objectives target the very channel through which rulers maintain their influence. In fact, in some regions, this patronage network provides economic stability due to investments in the local business sector. Accordingly, such reforms are considered disruptions that weaken a politician’s hold to power.

Part 3

Foreign aid ensures that developmental projects are accomplished using the right mechanisms. For example, they emphasize on the need for open procurement processes thereby enlarging the pool of participants in securing government contracts. As such, it reduces corruption in such institutions hence lowering the risk of pandering to special interest groups once officials come into power (Parker, 2015). In addition, it facilitates the adoption of proper accounting principles whereby all expenditures are scrutinized for conformity with the aid agreements. Consequently, this eliminates loopholes in different sectors thus limiting chances of fraud especially by supervisors of these projects (Bueno and Smith, 2011b). In addition, these gestures demand for fair employment procedures such as having a diverse workforce and equal yet non-discriminatory payment of workers. Rather than employ people of a certain ethnicity, gender or nationality as a reward for votes, external aid enhances the employment of people from varying backgrounds hence helping to initiate similar tactics in other public or private enterprises. It would be difficult to run an administration that favors such an approach in foreign aided agencies alone thus, replication in other arms of government will follow. Gradually, more people will have jobs and the salaries will be standardized resulting in a productive labor force, which enhances GDP growth.

Similarly, most of this aid is dependent on implementation of the statutes and pegs additional funds on the enforcement of the agreement to the letter. While some details may be omitted, having such arrangements forces regimes to respect the law regardless of one’s position in the society. Failure to do so would result in dire consequences such as sanctions. The latter is a threat to the economic stability of any nation since it suspends international trade with other partners hence stifling the market place. By insisting on following the law, a vital tenet of democracy is adopted (Bueno and Smith, 2011a). Moreover, such a tool focuses on the benefit of the masses as opposed to self-fulfillment of individuals. For instance, it is used in the building of hospitals, roads, schools and even running charitable organizations, which are all communal events. It dose not seek to benefit a few people. By so doing, it raises awareness through civic education about the duties of an active citizenry in demanding accountability from their elected representatives (Beueno and Smith, 2011g). Members of the public become enlightened on the potential that the administrators have to transform their livelihoods hence they become proactive in public affairs. They become vigilant and creative in setting solutions to their problems in the hope of overcoming poverty and other societal ills thereby keeping the government in check to fulfill election pledges. Therefore, such vigilance results in economic empowerment while any deviation leads to civil disobedience, which is a sign of a state’s maturity.

Conclusion

Leadership varies among individuals and countries as well. Globalization has increased the need for democracy by laying conditions for equality in various spheres of public service. Nevertheless, dictatorial regimes also exist. In both instances, the officials claim to be working for the people in order to realize their personal and national aspirations. It is evident that both systems acknowledge the power of influential supporters hence seek to appease this constituency in order to remain in office. However, this patronage occurs to great cost to some sections of the society due to the unequal distribution of resources and wealth. As such, politicians have to deal with the backlash occasioned by such discriminatory behavior since it is an affront on their continuity to remain in power (Parker, 2015). Whereas the issuance of foreign aid is sometimes seen as helping in the democratization process, its rejection is viewed as a shrewd way to maintain the loyalty of core supporters by most leaders, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the conditions set by donors are noble and intend to initiate economic reforms, which are critical in improving accountability within state institutions as well as increasing public participation in issues affecting their country (Bueno and Smith, 2011e). Therefore, succumbing to special interests needs is detrimental to a state although it is effectively used by most leaders to maintain power and influence.

 

 

 

 

 

References

Bueno, Bruce, and Smith, Alistair.2011. The Dictator’s Handbook: Why Bad Behavior is almost always Good Politics. [Protests: a] New York: Public Affairs.

Bueno, Bruce, and Smith, Alistair.2011. The Dictator’s Handbook: Why Bad Behavior is almost always Good Politics. [Selectorate: b] New York: Public Affairs.

Bueno, Bruce, and Smith, Alistair.2011. The Dictator’s Handbook: Why Bad Behavior is almost always Good Politics. [Building Infrastructure: c] New York: Public Affairs.

Bueno, Bruce, and Smith, Alistair.2011. The Dictator’s Handbook: Why Bad Behavior is almost always Good Politics. [Solvency: d] New York: Public Affairs.

Bueno, Bruce, and Smith, Alistair.2011. The Dictator’s Handbook: Why Bad Behavior is almost always Good Politics. [Taxation: e] New York: Public Affairs.

Bueno, Bruce, and Smith, Alistair.2011. The Dictator’s Handbook: Why Bad Behavior is almost always Good Politics. [Protests: f] New York: Public Affairs.

Bueno, Bruce, and Smith, Alistair.2011. The Dictator’s Handbook: Why Bad Behavior is almost always Good Politics. [Aid: g] New York: Public Affairs.

Gibson, Clark, and Hoffman, Barak. 2002. “Dictators with Empty Pockets: A Political Concession’s Model of Africa’s Democratization.” American Political Science Association 1-42.

Parker, Roberts. 2015. Political Logic of Foreign Aid. The Pennsylvania State University.

Smith, Alistair, and Mesquita Bruce. 2011. “A Dictator’s Handbook for the President.” Foreign Policy 1-8.

 

 

 

Calculate your order
275 words
Total price: $0.00

Top-quality papers guaranteed

54

100% original papers

We sell only unique pieces of writing completed according to your demands.

54

Confidential service

We use security encryption to keep your personal data protected.

54

Money-back guarantee

We can give your money back if something goes wrong with your order.

Enjoy the free features we offer to everyone

  1. Title page

    Get a free title page formatted according to the specifics of your particular style.

  2. Custom formatting

    Request us to use APA, MLA, Harvard, Chicago, or any other style for your essay.

  3. Bibliography page

    Don’t pay extra for a list of references that perfectly fits your academic needs.

  4. 24/7 support assistance

    Ask us a question anytime you need to—we don’t charge extra for supporting you!

Calculate how much your essay costs

Type of paper
Academic level
Deadline
550 words

How to place an order

  • Choose the number of pages, your academic level, and deadline
  • Push the orange button
  • Give instructions for your paper
  • Pay with PayPal or a credit card
  • Track the progress of your order
  • Approve and enjoy your custom paper

Ask experts to write you a cheap essay of excellent quality

Place an order