Nature of the skin or hide determines transformations into leather
Flexible and durable material obtained by tanning of skin and rawhide from animals


Exists in four types, full grain, top grain and split and corrected grain
Produced in manufacturing process within cottage industry or specialized heavy industry
Preparation involves separation, splitting, soaking, unhairing, degreasing, bleaching
Undergoes through tanning, preparation and crusting
Tanning requires matching of protein from raw skin or hide into an even material
Crusting entails thinning, lubricating, retanning, color addition
Application of surface coating is done in the end process
Finishing is characterized by oiling, padding, brushing, spraying and polishing
Putrefied materials highly discouraged in tanning
Split leather is extracted from fibrous part from the separated top grain

India is the world’s third largest producer and exporter of leather


The number of tanneries Kanpur, India has as of 2011


















70-100 USD/t

The amount of pollution cost to the country of Croatia from raw hides as of 2001



























Covington, Tony. Tanning Chemistry: The Science of Leather. Cambridge, UK: Royal Society of Chemistry, 2009. Internet resource.

Cox, Patty. Native American Leather & Bead Crafting. New York, NY: Sterling, 2008. Print.

Procter, Henry. The Making of Leather. Cambridge England: University Press, 2011. Print.

Voigt, William. Leather. Hastings, Mich: Wild Goose Publishing, 2007. Print.

Barbe, Josephine, and Frank-Michael Arndt. Leather: History, Techniques, Projects. , 2013. Print.



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