Symbolic Models of the Mind and Neural Networks

Symbolic Models of the Mind and Neural Networks





Evolution has led man to create different equipment to make work easier. Due to industrialization, the use of computers has risen. Consequently, the type of features incorporated into their assembly has been enhanced to meet the growing number of consumer needs. Thus, designers have attempted to integrate the nature of a brain’s functions into the working of computers. Through the installation of sensors, these devices are able to detect changes in the environment and notify users for action to be taken. Whereas the use of artificial intelligence is beneficial, it cannot replace human beings.


Symbolic Models of the Mind and Neural Networks

Part 1

Artificial intelligence (AI) is the use of programs in machines to perform certain analytical functions. As such, computers are used in various industries such as manufacturing to perform different production line processes aimed at facilitating the assembly of parts (Berlatsky, 2011). Similarly, these systems are vital in making mathematical interpretations thereby solving complex data problems. For example, in aviation, simulators are made to aid pilots in training under different weather conditions in preparation for similar actual flights. In particular, this is evident in the Air Operations Division where these pilots learn to make quick tactical decisions to avoid mishaps. During these sessions, the device detects various weather patterns such as turbulence, air density, precipitation and wind shear. Consequently, it summarizes them and induces different mechanical reactions that spur the captain to act in an appropriate manner to steer the machine safely using flight controls.

Likewise, AI is used by military personnel in recreating aircraft warfare conditions necessary for them to practice. These computers have an inbuilt system that allows them to perform drills based on the size, strength and speed of opposing forces. In addition, they are equipped with relevant programs that generate best possible scenarios for the pilots to counter any threats and maneuver through combat zones. Thus, these devices assist him/her to navigate hostile weather conditions and locate targets in a manner that a human would have used logic (.Nagabhushana & Sudha, 2010). While this is ongoing, a record of the progress in one’s practical is kept to offer an analysis of his/her performance in which mistakes are noted and excellent flying skills strengthened in readiness for actual warfare. This makes simulation essential to all pilots as it illustrates the risks to be faced and the means to divert or dodge them.

Moreover, AI is employed in speech recognition software whereby programs that integrate neural networks are used to provide directions from air traffic controllers to pilots and vice versa. Importantly, these gadgets are carefully assembled to offer timely and accurate information during these communications to facilitate the smooth navigation of the aeroplanes. Similarly, artificial Intelligence supported Design of Aircraft is another function that assists software engineers to create conceptual aircraft designs. Hence, it guides them on drafting different prototypes that seek to maximize comfort while adhering to safety considerations as well. Sometimes, the cockpits are fitted with computers that allow damaged aircraft to carry on with the flight path until a safe landing zone is reached too. This technology makes the equipment to rely on undamaged components for a set period as the pilot flies to the nearest airport to make an emergency landing (Weckert, 2007). Likewise, an Integrated Vehicle Management System exists that processes data collected from different aircraft sensors. It interprets the content from a machine language to one that is user friendly and is vital in notifying the captain the structural integrity of the aeroplane. It also offers recommendations of the actions to be taken to correct any anomalies that may have arisen during the flight (Stamatellos, 2007).

However, the classroom environment poses different challenges to the traditional use of computers since they are more interactive. In most instances, they are topic based and form part of a virtual reality program. This consist of various units that are interconnected in the shape of the brain to produce sounds and words that mimic the setting that has been selected. Consequently, students may choose to learn about the history of the country or make virtual tours that are specifically themed. As such, the devices they use are laden with graphics and other entertaining features thereby making them attractive and easy to understand. Furthermore, they contain commands that guide the student to make prompts on the screen and the relevant content is displayed. For example, a search for American history is bound to contain aspects about the constitution making process and the wave of immigration that hit the country during its founding. Such data is projected in a stylish way to appeal to viewers who are meant to pay attention to the content as well as its presentation. Additional appliances such as headphones may be used too to elicit different sensations, which make the learning exercise more enjoyable. Thus, the user has a wholesome experience where he/she mostly benefits from the use of various natural senses. As a precaution, the content available needs to be updated in order to show an accurate description of the facts. This would ensure credibility of the information and offer insight to learners on any topic chosen.

Part 2

The application of artificial intelligence is a reality especially due to the advancement in technology. The changing societal trends have led to people living busy lifestyles in which they have little time to do basic chores. As such, creative software developers are able to build programs that direct robots to do certain tasks around the house. Nevertheless, the difference between human beings and these computer-aided machines will be the latter’s lack of emotions. As such, these devices may not be able to think on their own but they would be programmed to behave in a predictable way depending on the stimuli that surrounds them (Shelly, Freund & Vermaat, 2011). Hence, there is no likelihood of computers replacing human beings since they cannot possess their movement, coordination or balance. Similarly, machines lack brains of their own and have to be constantly monitored to ensure that they are in favorable conditions. This shows that they cannot handle emergencies, which require a change of plans.

Due to their lack of emotions, they cannot actively interact with people as well. Besides performing the functions they have been set to do, there will be no connection made in terms of conversations since they do not understand different languages. Such a scenario goes against the social desire of humans to discuss issues whereupon relationships are born. Moreover, those with speech capabilities will only provide brief, general answers that may not be satisfactory to the needs of a customer (Harris, 2011). Consequently, an artificial intelligence machine is a rigid structure that is not adaptable to the occurrence of any error. In most cases, when machines break down, they are repaired by human beings. Thus, computers are not reliable to solve their own problems as people do. Therefore, the quest to build robots with a human brain is largely philosophical. In addition, they too would be a danger to children or handicapped, as these people do not know how to operate them. Someone could accidentally touch a button thereby triggering various reactions from AI appliances thereby causing harm to people nearby users. Children would be the most affected since they like wandering and are easily fascinated by such gadgets as well.












Berlatsky, N. (2011). Artificial Intelligence. Detroit: Greenhaven Press.

Harris, M. (2011). Artificial Intelligence. New York: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark.

Nagabhushana, S., & Sudha, L. (2010). Aircraft Instrumentation and Systems. New Delhi: I.K. International Pub. House.

Shelly, G., Freund, S. & Vermaat, M. (2011). Introduction to Computers. Boston, MA: Course Technology.

Stamatellos, G. (2007). Computer Ethics: A Global Perspective. Sudbury, Mass: Boston.

Weckert, J. (2007). Computer Ethics. Aldershot: Ashgate.

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