YouTube and E-Book
YouTube and E-Book
Different individuals adopt disparate innovations in communication and then disseminate them to other parties. However, certain factors determine whether the innovations will be adopted or not. Hence, the degree to which a new device, method or idea will undergo implementation in a formal or informal setting depends largely on the attributes as well as impacts that will be posed upon application. In this respect, the diffusion of innovations attempts to elucidate the way in which innovations are infused within a population. The determinants, as mentioned, assert an imperative role in establishing the rationality of this premise. Nonetheless, in order to assess the respective process, it is vital to research on certain new ideas, which have been taken up by the global populace. These innovations constitute the interactive video site, YouTube and the digital medium, Electronic Book (E-book).
Overview of the Mediums
The arrival of the digital age has established different opportunities for individuals and organizations alike. The YouTube and E-book platforms are clear examples of the changes that technology has imposed on the contemporary society. As an interactive platform, YouTube has enabled millions of individuals to create, show and convey a broad range of user-produced content as well as organizational media content. These comprise television and video clips, music videos, original videos, blogs and instructional videos. A large portion of the content disseminated by YouTube is uploaded by people. However, media organizations such as Vevo and BBC provide some material through the media site partly due to the agreement between them. Contrary to this, the E-book has facilitated the distribution of literature among populations via a digital platform. Because of the connectivity provided by the Internet, any individual or organization can read and purchase books of their interest on a website.
Innovation I: YouTube
YouTube mainly constitutes a video-sharing website through users can upload, see and share their videos to their private list of contacts and the overall YouTube community. In order to do this, the company utilizes HTML5 technology and Adobe Flash video program, which allows it to highlight a widespread range of video content (Strangelove 23). The uploaded content varies from materials produced by individual users to content provided by organizations or corporations. Normally, the site allows individuals to engage in such activities as long as they possess an account. However, in the case of media corporations, a partnership agreement is required between both in order to allow the dissemination of corporation-produced content via the website. To enable individuals show or share their video content, the site offers them the ability to upload 15-minute videos. Moreover, users who adhere considerably to the site’s policies and guidelines can upload videos that depict a duration length of 12 hours. However, to do this, users will need to verify their accounts via usual devices such as Smartphones. Furthermore, users can also download videos over 20 GB if they utilize a currently updated browser.
YouTube was established in late 2005 by Chad Hurley, Jawed Karim and Steve Chen (Helft and Richtel 1). Accordingly, the founders of the site worked for PayPal. The initial design of YouTube was based on an online dating site. However, after subsequent events that took place in 2004 such as the Tsunami and the Super Bowl occurrence involving Janet Jackson, the idea of a video-sharing website (Strangelove 45). The primary motivation for this was due to the limited number of video clips available for showing these separate incidences. Based on this, the company started as a technological-based business establishment after receiving $11.5 million in capital from Sequoia Capital (Helft and Richtel 3). The site’s headquarters were located in the San Mateo district in California. Following this, in 2005, the company activated their domain name leading to further development of the website over several months. However, the establishment of this domain led to lawsuits filed by Universal Tube, based on allegations surrounding copyright infringement in 2006. During this same year, Google Inc. acquired the site for 1.65 billion dollars in the company’s stock (Helft and Richtel 3).
Due to the popularity of the site locally and globally, YouTube provides an effective paradigm of research in relation to the diffusion of networks. According to Strangelove (45), the site receives up to an average of 800 million new users in each month. In addition to this, 100 hours of viewership concerning newly generated video content are uploaded every minute to the site and roughly, three-quarters derives from locations that are outside of America. Based on such information, it is evident that the general population has accepted YouTube as part of an innovation designed to cater to their needs. Aside from this, Hill and Moran (823) assert that the site has become a marketing forum for corporations focusing on attracting more customers locally and internationally as well as driving sales. As such, the respective platform has undergone significant acceptance within the social and business community due to the opportunities and benefits it provides to users based on different factors of satisfaction.
Innovation II: E-book
The Electronic Book, commonly known as the E-book, comprises a publication that is accessible in a digital form. Normally, such publications comprise books. However, e-books are not limited to this criterion only since they also comprise text, pictures, or even both. With the advent of digital technology, e-books are readable on a variety of electronic devices with the most common being mobile phones and computers. Even though described as electronic versions of printed publications, e-books subsist without such corresponding materials. Furthermore, the publications made commercially available are normally aimed at consumers possessing e-book readers. Nonetheless, with the advent of the Smartphone technology, other electronic devices such as tablets and Smartphones can also be utilized to read these publications as long as they possess a manageable presentation display. Additionally, computers that possess digital reading programs such as Adobe Reader can practically view e-books based on their formats. Hence, updated Abode program versions can be highly adept in reading e-books regardless of the format. In terms of purchase, users can buy the publications online, especially from websites that avail them, and download the e-books to their electronic devices.
Currently, the history of the e-book is not accurately determined. However, from the early 1940s, several individuals have been credited for the creation of the digital platform. Roberto Busa, during the late 1940s, created the Index Thomisticus, which comprised electronic indexed annotations of the works written by Thomas Aquinas (Lebert 13). During this period, Angela Ruiz Robles patented the first digital publication, which was powered by condensed air. In the 1960s, Andries van Dam and Doug Engelbart created these publications, and further publicized the term (Lebert 13). In the early 1970s, Michael S. Hart created the first electronic document by keying in the Declaration of Independence in a computer (Lebert 19). After this, subsequent developments were established whereby researchers and specialists focused largely on the establishment of more digital texts such as books. The development of e-books around this time, moreover, influenced concentration on the development of programs and devices aimed at displaying and reading the digital medium.
The e-book has proliferated considerably within the global society. As a medium of communication, the device has become effective in the collaboration and development of knowledge among individuals as well as corporations. Interestingly, e-books have become considerably popular to the point that printed publications have actually experienced a reduction in sales over the past few years. Due to the advent of online commercial sites, people from different parts of the globe have become capable of accessing and purchasing publications of their interest at lower costs and diminished inconveniences. Based on such factors or determinants, the e-book comprises a medium that can be studied thoroughly in relation to the diffusion of innovations. Aside from this, the propagation of the e-book has facilitated the establishment of other related segments within the technology sector. Operating software programs such as Android have developed applications capable of collecting, organizing and reading digital publications (Martin and Xuemei 78). Furthermore, technology corporations such as Apple, Samsung and Tecno have engaged significantly in the development of notebooks and tablets, which can be utilized routinely to read e-books and perform other functions not necessarily related to these media.
Undeniably, YouTube and E-book comprise prime examples of the way innovations undergo acceptance within individual populations. Nowadays, people over the world use YouTube on a routine basis based on the numerous opportunities it provides. Such opportunities vary from entertainment to business prospects. Similarly, the establishment of e-books has facilitated online business services aimed at selling both new and used digital publications to other consumers. Based on such occurrences, it is evident that both platforms present a good case in studying the diffusion of innovation especially in the contemporary technological age.
Helft, Miguel and Matt Richtel. “Venture Firm Shares a YouTube Jackpot.” The New York Times. 10 Oct. 2006. Web. 27 Jun. 2014. <http://www.nytimes.com/2006/10/10/technology/10payday.html/>
Hill, R. P., and N. Moran. “Social Marketing Meets Interactive Media: Lesson for the Advertising Communities.” International Journal of Advertising 30.5 (2011): 815-838. Print.
Lebert, Marie. A Short History of eBooks. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2009. Print.
Martin, William J, and Xuemei Tian. Books, Bytes, and Business: The Promise of Digital Publishing. Farnham: Ashgate, 2010. Print.
Strangelove, Michael. Watching YouTube: Extraordinary Videos by Ordinary People. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2010. Print.
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