Literature Review of Qualitative Studies
Literature Review of Qualitative Studies
Literature Review of Qualitative Studies
Qualitative research is an inquiry method employed in many different academic disciplines (Maxwell, 2008). Traditional used in social sciences, it has now expanded to include market research and other academic disciplines. The objective of researchers is to gather an in-depth understanding of human behavior, as well as the reasons, which govern such behavior. Qualitative methodology investigates why and how and generates information in specific cases under study and generalized conclusion (Manso, 2010).
This method helps to establish findings for a given problem under study. With this in mind, the paper seeks to evaluate qualitative research design theory, and particularly asses the various qualitative research design methods employed in five peer-reviewed articles. The study pays specific attention to the topic and its significance, theoretical framework, literature included, the research study, and the relation of the finding to the topic under study. This will help determine how effective researchers employ qualitative methods in their study.
Aart, & Dreher, (2010) in Dynamics of Mentoring relationships in India. A Qualitative Exploratory Study applies a qualitative approach in the evaluation of dynamics applied mentoring relationships in India. Thus, the author sought to determine the nature of mentoring relationship in collective cultures such as India. The author reviews extensive literature drawn from collective and individualistic culture.
By examining mentoring literature from Western perspective, the author identified limitations, which make it inapplicable to the collective culture. The author also examines mentoring literature in India, which guides him in formulating a research methodology (Maxwell, 2008). He employs 29 Indian MBA students using in-depth interviews (Aart & Dreher, 2010). The author sought to determine how Indians conceptualize dynamics of mentoring relationship, personal mentoring experiences, and mentoring as career management tool.
However, this methodology was, flawed as the author employed MBA students who recently came to US to further their studies. America represents a society, which is highly individualistic thus; they could have been influenced by their new surroundings. Thus, their responses were less likely to represent a pure collective culture thus making the realization of the objective elusive. As a recommendation, the researcher should have employed participants who had never been, exposed to individualistic cultures.
In the analysis of the respondents responses, the author established that while some aspects of mentoring appeared culturally invariant, other aspects might be influenced by social-cultural contexts and careers. However, this study had limitations. It examined mentoring from the mentee point of view and did not include the mentor. Besides, a small sample size made it difficult to determine gender role in mentoring in Egypt.
Feinstein-Winitzer, et al., (2014) in Insurer Views on Reimbursement of Preventive Services in the Dental Setting: Results from a Qualitative Study uses qualitative approaches to evaluate the preventive techniques applied in dental care settings towards preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS. The authors undertook an extensive study through literature reviews on the issue at hand to understand the issues covered and those not covered in previous research.
Through these studies, the author justifies the purpose of the study (Stewart & Pollock, 1998). In the analysis, the author carried out a semi-structured interview between April and October 2010 targeting a sample of 13 dental insurance company consultants and executives whose market cumulative share exceeded 50% of US employer-based dental insurance market (Feinstein-Winitzer et al., 2014). Semi-structured interviews incline with the guidelines of qualitative research (Maxwell, 2008)
The researcher established that certain preventive screening including oral cancer had widespread insurer reimbursement and support. Population-based HIV screening appeared to face extended barriers regarding insurer reimbursement. As established, the major barriers included inadequate provider training, perceived lack of patient acceptance, implementation and organizational constraints, limited evidence of effectiveness, and minimal employer demand. The author concludes based on the findings.
As affirmed in the study, dental settings provide avenues for preventive screening. However, addressing barriers to insurance reimbursement appears as a major challenge for public policy. Despite the progress, this study had major limitations. The researchers never took initiatives to expound on the terminologies employed in the study and did not differentiate between personal and professional views. Many of the respondents responded from a professional point of view rather than a personal point of view.
Hessam, Walewski, & Sheppley, (2014) in The Influence of facility design and Human resource Management on health care professionals sought to understand the approaches used by organizations especially in healthcare towards reducing costs. The study assumed a qualitative approach as a means of understanding the primary reason for Human Resource departments in health institutions to layoff the employees. The focus of healthcare entities is usually on cost reduction and management of labor as opposed to focus on the delivery of services and quality of such services on customers and the public.
Furthermore, the study sought to determine the relationship between facility design and human resource management as a part of cost management strategies without compromising employee commitment and quality of service delivery. The author conducted an extensive literature review of related studies before designing his research methodology. In the study, the author employs 700-health professionals drawn from 10 acute hospitals (Hessam et al., 2014)
He tested employee evaluation of human resource practices, physical work environment, and the relation to job satisfaction, anxiety, and commitment. In the findings, human practices and physical environment influenced job related attitude and feelings. The author also found a positive interaction between human resources and physical work environment. Facility design reduces job related anxieties. This study adds to the extensive understanding that management can use facility design to improve job-related feelings and attitudes, as well as ensure employee commitment.
Khan, et al., (2013) in The Impact of HRM Practices on Supply Chain Management Success in SME sought to provide a clear understanding of the existing relationship between human resource management and supply chain management in small and medium enterprises (SME). The author employs relevant studies to give a comprehensive background on the study. In the study, he derives data from participants in 195 manufacturing and service sectors SMEs (Khan et al., 2013). That study indicates that a majority of SMEs performed moderate SCM and HRM practices. Besides, SMEs that proactively employed HRMs registered supply chain management.
The author infers his conclusion from the research findings affirming that SCM success is, activated by HRM practices. This study adds to the understanding that SME managers need to enhance SCM success by implementing sophisticated HRM practices. Entities are able to gain competitive advantage over their competitors using such strategies.
Tabiu, (2013) in Assessing the Effects of Human Resource Management practices on Employee Job Performance: A study of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto evaluates the effects of basic human resource management techniques and how they influence employee satisfaction and retention in modern institutions.
In the study, the author clearly identifies the topic under study; Assessing the effects of human resource management practices on employee job performance. The problem that compels the study inclines on the lack of understanding regarding the effect of Human Resource Management practices on employee performance. Thus, the author studied the effect of human resource management practices on employee performance (Tabiu, 2013). Prior to conducting the study, relevant literature regarding human resource management and job performance is reviewed and limitations identified with regards to conducting the study.
Additionally, the author employs a small sample size of 285 teaching staff (Tabiu, 2013). Using interview and focus groups, the researcher establishes employee insights regarding HRM and their job performance. The use of focus groups and interviews incline with the guidelines of qualitative research (Manso, 2010). From the observations, he concludes that HRM practices at Usmanu Danfodiyo University relate to employee job performance. These findings add to the understanding that effective HRM allows university employees to contribute positively and effectively in the realization of organization goals and objectives.
In conclusion, the focus was largely on the qualitative techniques applied in the research as a means of understanding the various issues presented. Clearly the sample size employed in qualitative research, is relatively small with the predominant research methodology being focus groups, semi-structured interviews observations and in-depth interviews (Maxwell, 2008). Much of the interviews appear open to participants and through such approach, researchers identified other aspects, which they had not conceived. However, some researchers employed methodologies, which made the realization of the stated objective elusive.
Ramaswami, A., & Dreher, G. F. (May 01, 2010). Dynamics of mentoring relationships in India: A qualitative, exploratory study. Human Resource Management, 49, 3, 501-530.
Feinstein-Winitzer, R., Pollack H., Parish, C., Pereyra, M., Able S., & Metsch, L. (2014). Insurer Views on Reimbursement of Preventive Services in the Dental Setting: Results from a Qualitative Study. American Journal of Public Health. 104 (5), 881-887
Hessam, S. H., Walewski, J., & Sheppley, M.M. (2014). The Influence of facility design and Human resource Management on health care professionals. PubMed
Khan, N. R., Taha, S. M., Ghouri, A. M., Khan M. R., & Yong C. K. (2013). The Impact of HRM Practices on Supply Chain Management Success in SME. Scientific Journal 9(3), 177-189.
Manso, M. (2010). A general Perspective on Role of theory in Qualitative Research. Journal of International Social Research 3 (11)
Maxwell, J.A. (2008). Designing a Qualitative Study.
Stewart, L., Pollock, L. (1998). Guidelines for Critical Review of Qualitative Studies.
Tabiu, A. (2013). Assessing the Effects of Human Resource Management practices on Employee Job Performance: A study of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto. Journal of Business Studies Quarterly. 5(2), 248-259
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