Bali as a Model of Holism Centered in Subaks
Bali as a Model of Holism Centered in Subaks
According to the Balinese cosmology, gods are thought to dwell in the upper world, demons in the watery world and humans in a world between the two. Human effort is put to ascertain balance between the two worlds and forces of decay and growth. The divergence of Balinese cosmology and Judea –Christian is that demons live in hell as opposed to the watery world. In addition, human effort is put to appease God as basis of growth and avert hell after decay.
The Balinese irrigation system revolves around controlling farming along seaside plains and mountain slopes. Double cropping is common using mechanized ploughs. Crop watering in the system aligned with temple ceremonies as irrigation water came from the lake goddess appeased by the temples. The irrigation schedule was vital in the control of pests on cereal crops resulting in increased production. In this, the system ascertained lower communities had water and that collective farming was more productive than individual and federal plantations.
Art in Balinese culture exceeds its disciplinary confines as it is part of everyday Balinese life, culture and religion. Music, costumes, dance and theater rely on each other to achieve a given purpose, which is to create harmony and unity between the three Balinese worlds. Puppetry and other arts such as masks are powerful containers for wandering spirits, thus dancing helps rejuvenate the receptacles. Rejuvenation also includes sacrifices meaning contained spirits are appeased and acknowledged averting any instances of conflict between realms.
The Eka Dasa Rudra occurs after 100 years and includes all eleven Balinese demons that must be altered in a way that they present less harm to the world balance. The symbolic cleansing of the gods using seawater, sacrifice of a buffalo and chants and prayers all appease the gods while controlling demons resulting in a world balance. The sacrifices and prayers cover all eleven Balinese spaces. In 1963, the ceremony was wrong because the Agung erupted resulting in the death of 1500 people.
The Bali community is an exception of the rule that indigenous culture and massive tourism are mutually exclusive. Unlike other cultures, only 200 Bali people perform for tourists as the rest are left for temple time. Moreover, cultural sustainability is ascertained by the dual currency governed by Banjar leaders where the system is a ying-yang relationship covered in Taoism. Under this worldview, the Yang allows everyone to have a birthright while the ying gives collective cooperation finance. Therefore, all economic functions are done at community level ascertain preservation of cultural ideals.
During the arrival of the Green Revolution, the Indonesian government mandated the Balinese people to abandon their ancient scheduling methods and plant hybrid varieties of rice. There was also the introduction of chemical fertilizers in the form of farming. However, the modern concept would prove disastrous as diseases and pests immensely destroyed the Balinese rice production. Computer models highlight the plan as unsuccessful because of its interruption of synchronized planting and fallow periods.
Abrahamic religions namely Islam, Judaism and Christianity are similar to Hinduism and Buddhism in the belief of supreme beings and heavenly worlds. However, divergence arises in the number of gods and heavenly words. In Hindu cosmology, there are thirteen worlds (lokas), whereas there are three in Abrahamic religions. In Abrahamic religions, only one Supreme Being controls every aspect of man’s life. In eastern religions, many gods interact and function together under a hierarchical order to control aspect of human life.
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