Optical Microscopy





Optical Microscopy


An optical microscope enables the visible light rays direct by the individual observation towards the transformation or indirect system viewing as compared to that of electron means. Historically, optical microscopes provide for the oldest of designs known to man and their existence is believed to have originated from the period of 17th century. Different microscopes can be simple or complex depending on simple contrast and solution improvement used. The images captured can then be used in cameras of normal light-sensitive kind to generate a methodical micrograph. The importance of optical microscopy cannot be understated with the growth in its use especially in microelectronics, biotechnology, nanophysics, mineralogy, pharmaceutical research, and extensive microbiology. In the requirements of medical diagnosis, histopathology used in involvement with tissues and smear tests, also use the technology. Different variants in microscopes like stereo, comparison, inverted and student kinds are widely used for various applications today, depending on the specialization and purposes. Understanding of the functionality in optical microscopy is vital for maximizing of its full potential            



When light is passed through the condenser from the microscope lamp, the specimen in place absorbs it. In the context, some of the light is absorbed, other is passed around while some of it is reflected to some an extent. The direct or undeviated light is composed of the passed around, background and absorbed. Buffington (12) states that the wavelength in one-half of the phase enables destructive interference to the light especially when used on the intermediary image. The eye lens is then responsible for magnification of from the fixed diaphragm when projected into the retina. The light-sensitive film plane creates and produces the image for visibility. In order for maximum potential to be realized in handling of the microscope, understanding of the differential functions of each part is important. In addition, the viewer has to enable the specimen as light absorbing and equally determine the wavelength on its allowance.

            The central spot of any light within the use of optical microscopy is responsible for indication of direct light, which passes through the specimen without any disturbance. According to the terminologies, an order of the light represents aperture calibration of the image on either side. Thus, the first, second, third and fourth respective order of the diffraction pattern is realized with line grating. According to the light-absorbing nature of colors, the order is determined by the wavelength strength and the captured format. For example, green and red colors have differential diffraction angles (Buffington 12). The green has a lesser angle as compared to that of red wavelength. Therefore when operating the optical microscope, careful ability is required in determination of the closer space between the specimen and diffracted resonance. Keenness is a guarantee of obtaining a sharper focus within the diffracted specimen, for vital use in applications like microbiology.           

Kohler Illumination

In order to achieve high-quality images, the crucial mechanism required is the illumination procedure. It is critical for the process of optical microscopy and photomicrography. In the year 1893, n advanced procedure was used for the illumination process by Carl Zeiss Corporation and August Kohler (Roy and Roy 22). The procedure maximized on collector lens being in tandem with optical components, at the base through build. The mechanism behind it ensures that the image from the lamp filament is properly positioned and aperture diaphragm is able to sub stage the condenser. Subsequently the magnitude used in opening and closing of the condenser determines the quality of the procedure and resultant imaging. In this regard, one has to ensure that the design of the microscope is adept to the Kohler illumination technique to maximize on the potential of finer detailing and imagery.  

            Kohler illumination is responsible for producing uniform light. The light quality is free from glare and the intensity is succinct to uniform distribution. The image obtained is clear despite the time and season of the usage. The procedure also produces grain less kind of even ensembles on the image, while reaching the specimen at azimuths. Roy and Roy (22) note that in order for an individual to gain maximum use of Kohler illumination, one is required to keep the deterioration free from any dust particles. Keenness is required on the glass material contained in the condenser as well as surfaces. Once the condenser diaphragm is opened, the working aperture through its numerical is increased. Thus, the resolving power is amplified while light remittance is made better. It is advisable for simultaneous observation through changes in the aperture movement and condenser variables as it shows the strength of focal plane. 


Optical microscopy projected through diffraction. Its determinant is the finite objectives used at fixed planes. It then produces the intermediate image all together. It is dictated by the tube length of the microscope according to a typified distance to the focal plane at the rear (Stephens and Allan 84). Through the refractive index, the imaging at short distances enhances the type of results expected. The common media used in this context can range from water, air, glycerin and immersion oils depending on the requirement and specimen in representation. It is therefore valuable when handling the process of optical microscopy to use a wide range of objective designs to depict the results and meet needs of performance. It is thus critical for contrast enhancing techniques to be used by the deliberate consumer of any given technique. Precision within the framework is determinant of the result.

            With the shift in accuracy of the image produced and clarity, the focus of designers and manufacturers has changed to objectivity. The global trend requires change in the projection of emerging rays from azimuth to infinity. Usually they are in parallel bundles to the angles viewed by the user. Objectivity of the optical microscopy is already pre-determined at the point of manufacture depending on the tube length capability of the parts and use of technology in the process. However, it is advisable for one not to compromise on the standard of the objectivity in use, as it is the determinant of the result. The above enables clarity depending on the application wanted. For example, the requirement for tissue determination cannot use the same objectivity for microbiology. The finer the detail, the expensive requirement is delivered.        


It is worthy to note that optical microscopy contains errors, or as commonly referred to as aberration. Errors in the process and procedures in optical microcopy arise from the interaction between light and glass lenses through artifacts. The most common kind of aberrations is either chromatic or spherical (Mittemeijer 18). The requirements for aberration are induced in order to cause faults especially with features in play. In the historical development of technology, the occurrence of aberration was quite common due to the procedures used in manufacture of glasses. Later on, the increase of knowledge and expertise helped in alienation of the errors, as the lenses were more adept to the usage criteria. Therefore, in the present circumstances, recommended study on the type of lenses in optical microscopy is vital in order to reduce chances of aberration while in operation, as the consequence can be detrimental in application.

            Spherical aberration occurs when light that passes on the lens periphery does not get identical focus with that passing in proximity to the center. The waves passing on the centre are refracted in a slight motion whereas those passing near distinct periphery are greatly refracted. It is the greatest aberration since the image is not brought into focus and numerous errors can be obtained from its analysis. On the other hand, chromatic aberration involves white light having numerous wavelengths (Mittemeijer 19). The light is supposed to be of uniform wavelength in order to achieve microscopy and frequency, which is ideal for analysis. The colors are then refracted according to respective frequency and determination of the fine focus is made difficult. In the latter’s case, dispersion of the white light is achieved rather than imagery of the specimen.          


Understanding of the functionality in optical microscopy is vital for maximizing of its full potential. The importance of optical microscopy cannot be understated with the growth in its use especially in microelectronics, biotechnology, nanophysics, mineralogy, pharmaceutical research, and extensive microbiology. The applications consider the everyday requirement of man. In the requirements of medical diagnosis, histopathology used in involvement with tissues and smear tests, also use the technology. It is therefore ideal to understand the technology behind it, the errors, procedures, and potential maximizations.

Works Cited:

Buffington, Antoine. Optical Microscopy. Delhi: Library Press, 2012. Print.

Mittemeijer, E J. Fundamentals of Materials Science. Berlin: Springer, 2010. Print.

Roy, Jennifer R, and Gregory Roy. Patterns in Nature. New York: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark, 2006. Print.

Stephens, David, and Victoria Allan. “Light Microscopy Techniques and Imaging.” Science Journal 300. 5616 (2010): 82-86.

Calculate your order
275 words
Total price: $0.00

Top-quality papers guaranteed


100% original papers

We sell only unique pieces of writing completed according to your demands.


Confidential service

We use security encryption to keep your personal data protected.


Money-back guarantee

We can give your money back if something goes wrong with your order.

Enjoy the free features we offer to everyone

  1. Title page

    Get a free title page formatted according to the specifics of your particular style.

  2. Custom formatting

    Request us to use APA, MLA, Harvard, Chicago, or any other style for your essay.

  3. Bibliography page

    Don’t pay extra for a list of references that perfectly fits your academic needs.

  4. 24/7 support assistance

    Ask us a question anytime you need to—we don’t charge extra for supporting you!

Calculate how much your essay costs

Type of paper
Academic level
550 words

How to place an order

  • Choose the number of pages, your academic level, and deadline
  • Push the orange button
  • Give instructions for your paper
  • Pay with PayPal or a credit card
  • Track the progress of your order
  • Approve and enjoy your custom paper

Ask experts to write you a cheap essay of excellent quality

Place an order
Verified by MonsterInsights