Natural Disasters

Natural Disasters




Natural Disasters

Question 1

Human resilience is the capability of people to withstand stressful situations. As such, it involves the ability of individuals to undergo loss of either loved ones or property due to natural disasters and still adapt to the ensuing emotions of devastation. Furthermore, such a condition results in people having the strength and temerity to remain optimistic even in the face of adversity.

Consequently, it is a reflection of the toughness in some individuals to continue with their lives despite the pain experienced from tragedies. Therefore, the hardiness exhibited by them is helpful in acting as a coping mechanism to withstand the consequences of such loss. In most instances, such people exhibit strong psychological preparedness that makes them consider the experience as a learning curve. They have a higher tolerance of adversities by even offering comfort to other sufferers hence are willing to go through other motions of life hopeful of a brighter future. In fact, they do not succumb to the tragedy. Rather, this state makes a person stronger.

Question 2

            Land use planning is the deliberate allocation of specific activities to certain regions to mitigate the occurrence of hazards. For example, human activity has been shifted to safe zones in the north while infrastructure elements have been relocated.

Similarly, the southern end is restricted to people (Rozdilsky, 1999). Such an arrangement has the likelihood of large casualties since the population is located in a safe zone. Furthermore, it has ensured that the soil texture or rock formation is not tampered with thereby limiting the frequency or scope of the volcanic activity. By so doing, less people are exposed to the dangers of this crisis. Moreover, strategizing on the proper use of the land has allowed people to make contingency plans in time before the next eruptions occur. As such, they have increased their defense mechanisms thereby lowering the possibility of being engulfed in such deadly attacks. It has also enhanced productivity by forcing people to maximize on the available land.

Question 3

            Earthquakes are measured using the Richter scale whereby the ground’s amplitude according to its movement is assessed against a logarithm. Accordingly, the higher the seismograph, the stronger the earthquake. In most instances, these events lead to destruction of structures as well as buildings thereby resulting in costly reconstruction activities.

Similarly, they also cause the deaths of many people who are located within its fault lines. Likewise, they are a hazard to the natural environment since they cause soil erosion. Moreover, the vegetation cover is also affected since it is uprooted hence causing an imbalance in the ecosystem. Additionally, they also lead to the displacement of people from their habitats thereby exposing them to ills such as disease outbreaks. Moreover, they also cause separation of families, which leads to the growth of individuals in dysfunctional home environments. In particular, the trauma that results from these encounters causes an eternal psychological scar.

Question 4

            Volcanic hazards result in the movement of magma from interior fault lines due to a lapse in the tectonic plates. The lava flows are dangerous to the surface since the ash flows cause harmful surges. Similarly, poisonous gases also erupt from volcanoes as acid aerosols hence causing respiratory problems.

They are also lethal when they encounter the skin or eyes. Furthermore, ash falls are common as well and they cause damage to agriculture. They are corrosive and travel en masse thereby affecting plant cover to their surroundings. Pyroclastic flows resulting from the melting of lava are another feature too while lahars and debris due to the resultant eruption are common as well. The strength of such debris is high and they cause destruction of objects lying in their wake. In addition, volcanic debris avalanches from volcanic cones may result in strong tidal waves especially when their advancement is towards lakes (Rozdilsky, 1999). Upon encountering unsuspecting individuals, they have devastating consequences such as drowning or suffocating them. Therefore, these are harmful effects to both the natural and manmade environment.

Question 5

It is possible for people to adapt to the threat of volcanoes since various developments can be made to shield them from its harmful effects. Many towns and cities have been known to be close to earthquake regions where the flow of volcanoes is regular. However, numerous inhabitants have maintained their lifestyles in such areas by adopting preventative techniques aimed at reducing the effects of such events. For example, plastic wraps are recommended for sealing appliances to prevent them from corrosive effects of an ash explosion. Furthermore, the placement of damp towels on loose door openings is another tactic while dust masks can also be won for protection.

However, the mental attitude of the inhabitants has to be strong to avoid constant hysteria over the impending danger. The detection and verification of various warning systems are rigorous due to the uneven nature of seismic activity. Accordingly, relocation would be a challenge since people are attached to their homes and may not be willing to relocate. Similarly, it would be stressful to have enough savings for reconstruction or relocation. Moreover, it would be problematic to conduct predictions in a volatile area due to the likelihood of the eruptions occurring at any time. Additionally, the warning systems have to be advanced in order to provide alerts to a majority of residents within a short period. Such a move is vital in reducing the expected carnage as well as lowering the rescue costs thereby making the disaster manageable.







Rozdilsky, J. (1999). Disaster Recovery in an Ongoing Hazard Situation on Montserrat. Michigan.









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