Directions: Select ONE of the following scenarios for your memo. Write a One-Page Memo answering the questions. Be concise.

  1. The Emergency Management CycleWe spent much of the second half of the semester exploring the Emergency Management Cycle.  This process is central to understanding how emergency managers conduct their work. For this question, please write a cogent essay applying the five steps of the emergency management cycle to a hazard. Your essay must include the following:
    1. Definitions of the terms you are using 
    1. Application of each phase of the cycle to a hazard. You can discuss this as a hypothetical agency, or, apply concepts to the resolution and mitigation of the particular hazard and its risks.
  2. Federalism

One of the challenges in coordinating all emergency management activities is managing our national culture and laws, including the relationship among the people, and their governments. This challenge is rooted in our Constitutional federalism—one people with two sovereigns (the state, and the federal governments respectively). During the course, we have discussed classical notions and sources of federalism and how they impact 21st century emergency management policymaking. For this question, evaluate the following:

  1. How does federalism affect emergency management?
    1. Identify four examples (from any week thus far), and explain how federalism impacts how governments respond to disaster.
    1. In what ways is the relationship between state and federal government for emergency management collaborative, based on the readings?
    1. Why do states get to determine their own emergency management structures? And what advantages or disadvantages does each state deciding how to conduct emergency management present?

3. Citizen Role in Response

Citizens can play a unique role in disaster response, from being individually prepared to becoming more formally involved as a volunteer. We explored in readings the myriad ways that citizens can become involved in preparedness, from NVOADs to volunteering.

  1. What roles do the public play in disaster preparedness?
    1. Name at least two non-governmental organizations or federal programs discussed in readings and lecture, their roles in disaster response, and the potential advantage those partner programs present for preparedness.
    1. Discuss at least two advantages and two disadvantages in relying upon citizen volunteers in disaster response, generally speaking. Provide specific examples of these advantages and disadvantages

 4. Community Resilience

Community Resilience places particular emphasis on how informal groups of people may prepare for disasters, taking social, economic, cultural and local considerations into account. For this question, evaluate the following in your essay:

  1. Apply the CRS, as citied in Plodinec in Canvas, to your community.
    1. Identify your “community” – is it the city? Your neighborhood? Your religious, political, cultural community? 
    1. Who are the leaders of this community? 
    1. What factors contribute to the community’s resilience? What are the risks? For each risk, identify an improvement that would be needed through the CRS process to address the risks.

5. Crisis Communications

 Effective communications are absolutely essential to responding to any emergency or disaster. Government executives must clearly communicate the risks facing the community, and develop strategic messages to guide the public in times of crisis.

  1. How does the public see risk? How do the EM institutions see risk? How do decision makers work to reconcile differences of public/institutional perception of risks?
    1. What is the mission of an effective disaster communications strategy? Who are the stakeholders? Describe the guidelines that should be followed when working with the media in disaster response.
    1. What three (3) factors do the Department of Homeland Security/Federal Emergency Management Agency (DHS/FEMA) and its state and local partners need to address to improve its communications with the American people?
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