History, Culture and Ethnic Studies

Part II

Question 1

According to Christine Stansell’s chapter, industrialization was responsible for changing the social and economic fabric of the American people and life. The social life was changed in that the availability of confined time according to the responsibilities of men and women was re-conditioned. Rather than become the stay-a-home mothers, women were able to seek employment in order to supplement the family incomes[1]. The family life became an avenue for increased time and dependence as opposed to the substance needs and demands for all the members. Dedication into increased spending and gathering of the family setups became common as industrialization took effect. After the availability of giving labor, the family took jurisprudence.

The issue of gender roles between man and was significantly changed. From the traditional setup, the man was responsible for income generation and provision to the family in the American lifestyle and setup. On the other hand, the woman was responsible for all the domestic duties, availability of all endeavors aimed at home making, without any pressures on provision. However, industrialization changed the setup with increased availability of economical opportunities for the woman. She was able to get employment and generate necessary income to complement the man’s efforts. On the other and, independence changed the roles as some of the women decided to manage on their own, at the expense of support from the man. It also shifted the roles of the woman within the household setup as those who provided for the needs of the home were regarded as being more important. Decision-making and actualization was taken up by the woman.

Question 2

In the Dunbar-Ortiz argument, the Americans reconciled democracy and genocide in order to characterize it as freedom for the people long before the civilization and establishment of the nationalistic agendas. The mandate had been to conquer the people and land in order to amass wealth, while making sure that there was constant supply of the labor needed at every time. The freedom of the people came into being when democracy was institutionalized as means of giving the people ability to speak out against any form of oppression when the issue regarding their land and wealth was affected. The reconciliation came into being when the institution of the union was needed for the nationalistic agendas f the land. Consolidation of all the people was needed and rightful ownership.

Andrew Jackson, Daniel Boone and James Fenimore, through his fictional work, played important roles for the reconciliation of the freedom of people characterized by the cohesive demands. Andrew Jackson was significant in turning the struggles faced at the time into race wars between the different ethnicities. Dunbar-Ortiz through his writing cited the need for effective reconciliation especially after different genocides coincided with grave results for the people[2]. The instillation of protection was necessary for the people. On the other hand, the decisive facet was realized when the reconciliation helped in forming the unity amongst the people in the land as it translated to the freedom in modern world. Changes had to respect the person’s right to life, protection, and entitlement to ownership of land.

Question 4

The Stamp Act was an act of parliament, which imposed tax that was directed at colonies of British America. It necessitated the purchase of stamps from Great Britain, produced there carried and embossed of the revenue stamp. The intended outcome was meant to facilitate the payment of troops in the North America who were responsible for the British victories in various wars like French and Indian, as well as seven year’s war[3]. Among the colonists, it was unpopular as they deemed it an abuse and violator of their rights. In North America, there was call for London to honor its patronage to the proceeds as the Americans stated that the soldiers were not needed in the country. The country was able to protect itself without the troops’ help.

The response to the stamp act was not left to colonists alone, even the manufacturers of products within Britain voiced their concerns on the same as their exports were threatened in the same breadth. It included the merchants who facilitated the growth and development of trade and reliance amongst the nations. The reactions were varied to the act, as it was not a positive element to the colonists alone. The ramifications were witnessed on the political aspects as relations were strained between the countries and Great Britain. Several protests and pressure on the governmental actions were enabled without failure, as the process had to be declined. It was evident after the appeal of the act was made possible as a matter of expedience.

Question 5

According to James Loewen, there is significance in the erasure of figures like John Brown and others who were committed to anti-racism within the United States history. He states that the three-way struggle between the Indian, African and European influence in the country was not part of the conclusive efforts of building the nation as well as unity purposes. He also argues that it is significant to omit such figures in order to erase the sharpest divisions that were encountered in the nation’s history, instead of the positive achievements thus far. The collapse in the Davison between African Americans and the whites was instrumental in the formation of the Republican Party as the labeling of the democrats as white man’s party symbolic[4].

James argues that omission of the struggles on racial grounds helps transform the outlook of students in today’s system. He states that the gloomy nature of majority high school students is faced with the abject relevance on racial wars and relation, even to this day. It generates an intolerant attitude with every resemblance of the divisions as the different dimensions of the differences are taken up by other peoples. He also argues that the division caused by commitments to anti-racism in the US history developed a tendency of not improving the leadership of the nations. The significance of his statement alludes to the fact that the erasure of the racism dimension generates a united front on national development, without the basis of histories that only can create deeper divisions.

Part III

Question 2

The significance of Harper Weekly’s 1869 cover in the announcing if the completion of the transcontinental railroad cannot be underestimated. At the time, there was little in the development of civilization, despite the efforts made in strengthening the need for machines and articulation of technology in solving some struggles. With the completion of the transcontinental railroad, it was imperative that the different connections would help realize the need for trade development, transportation concerns and availability of goods and services from one point to another. In addition, the effective need for transfer of features needed for development was important as a statement to the rest of the territories on the capabilities within the American stetting. It was a sense of national pride in the overall basis.

Different groups within America in the 19th century would interpret the imagery presented by the Harper Weekly’s 1869 cover in divergent modes. The native speakers would be circumspect of the intended message passed as the dominance of racial divides was am issue of concern to everyone. At the time, the need for recognition in the eyes of the minority groups and non-natives was instrumental. Therefore, among the minorities, the feature on the weekly cover was an achievement and purpose of intent in making sure that freedom and issues regarding race was solved. The events at the time would necessitate the divergent reactions towards Harper Weekly’s 1869 cover a symbol of progress while detriment to the majority of the whites.

One of the major ideologies that would not be welcome to the interracial representation of American progress and technological advancement, was the inequality developed by the whites against the majority and native speakers at the time. The debate on equality and representation, facilitated by the uptake of slaves and their use within labor demands, would have been the chief negative portrayal of the same. To the whites, there was need to increase the white supremacy as a matter of concern in order to effect the need for ownership and realization of the nationalistic agendas. To the minority groups, the cover symbolized the transformations of success from earlier battles on racial grounds in terms of representation and human rights violations. With events of civil war and struggles for consolidation of the union, the cover feature did not appeal.



Babcock, Matthew M. 2008. Turning Apaches into Spaniards North America’s forgotten Indian reservations. Dissertation Abstracts International. 69-04. Ann Arbor, Mich: ProQuest.

Hund, Wulf D. Wages of whiteness & racist symbolic capital. Münster, Westf: LIT, 2010.

Schlund-Vials, Cathy J., Linda Trinh Võ, and Kevin Scott Wong. Keywords for Asian American studies, 2015.

Stansell, Christine. City of women: sex and class in New York, 1789-1860. New York: Knopf, 1986.



            [1] Christine Stansell, City of women: sex and class in New York, 1789-1860, (New York: Knopf, 1986) 23

            [2] Matthew M Babcock, Turning Apaches into Spaniards North America’s forgotten Indian reservations.

Dissertation Abstracts International. 69-04 (Ann Arbor, Mich: ProQuest, 2008) 17.


[3] Cathy J. Schlund-Vials, Linda Trinh Võ, and Kevin Scott Wong. Keywords for Asian American studies (2015) 19.

[4] Wulf D. Hund,  Wages of whiteness & racist symbolic capital (Münster, Westf: LIT, 20100 31

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