Factors behind the Rise and Decline of Ancient Egypt Civilization





Factors behind the Rise and Decline of Ancient Egypt Civilization

The Nile was a major factor in the rise of ancient Egypt civilization. It enabled agricultural cultivation, which in turn developed the region’s economy. In addition, it acted as the main water source for the people and the animals, despite the presence of high temperatures in the region. There were numerous wars during the time. Ancient Egypt was able to shield itself from such attacks because of the presence of the natural barriers including the desert and the sea. The presence of peace in the region and the assurance of food gave the people the chance to concentrate on other things. They were a sophisticated civilization. They were literate and they had developed a form of writing. They published numerous documents such as religious texts and instructional materials. They understood diverse topics such as medicine, dentistry, mathematics and architecture. They developed enduring images and they engaged in sculpture and painting. Some of the creations such as temples and pyramids remain to this day. This shows the level of sophistication and knowledge that the people had at the time (Mark).

The government contributed to the rise of ancient Egypt. It was the first organized society and it was led by a god-king. The Pharaonic age began with King Menes who unified lower and Upper Egypt. Power was centralized and bureaucratic process was observed in governance. The pharaoh in leadership determined the direction of his reign. He had the power and authority to institute change and he had the means to do so. Therefore, the success of the pharaoh was dependent on his ability to rule (Mark). Ancient Egypt had some effective pharaohs who managed to develop their country and enable it to acquire wealth. They instituted development projects such as public works. Some of them were military strategists. They found ways of defeating their attackers and expanding the region. However, some of them failed to work in people’s interests and this led to resentment and division among the people.

Egypt had great wealth and culture and many nations fought against it. Although it managed to defend itself several times, it finally succumbed to foreign rule. Failure to develop a clear succession policy led to the decline of ancient Egypt. Ramses II had been the longest serving leader as he had been pharaoh for about seventy years. However, he had many sons and this meant that there was a struggle to succeed him. This lack of unity had an effect in the way the country was governed. There were civil wars and constant attacks by bandits. Because of this, the nation’s economy began to decline.

The Assyrians attacked the country and they managed to invade and conquer it. They later left it in ruins. The Persians then invaded ancient Egypt before the coming of Alexander the great. Alexander defeated the Persians and he established the city of Alexandria. During the Roman Empire, Egypt was reduced to a province of Rome. As other nations developed their military strength, Egypt remained behind. Ancient Egypt had a massive army although some of the people who served were foreigners. However, it did not develop its military technology. While some of its foes used weapons made of iron, Egypt continued to depend on bronze as the main material. It did not have the resources to develop weapons from iron, which were more superior compared to the bronze weapons (Dodson).

Works Cited

Dodson, Aidan. “Egypt: The End of a Civilization.” BBC. 17 Feb. 2011. Web. 17 Apr. 2015

Mark, Joshua. “Ancient Egypt.” Ancient History Encyclopedia. 2 Sep. 2009. Web. 17 Apr. 2015

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