Effects of Television on Activity Pattern of Deaf Children

Effects of Television on Activity Pattern of Deaf Children

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Effects of Television on Activity Pattern of Deaf Children

The television, just like any other form of media, holds both negative and positive implications for the deaf child. Television has been used in the past to aid children with hearing disabilities in their learning efforts. The most common approach used is captioning. Television captions are effective text-based innovation designed to facilitate access to auditory elements in television inaccessible to deaf children. Captions are equally important as auditory assistants in noisy environments for viewers that are hard of hearing. The inclusion or absence of provisions for deaf people in television programs has a massive cognitive and emotional impact on such disabled children (Cintas, & Neves, 2015; Zarate, & Eliahoo, 2014). For instance, learning using sign language in the television is relatively difficult for most children. This is because they are yet to master the art of following the program and reading sign language simultaneously.

In the academic context, this might prove challenging and result in lower student performance (Cambra, Penacchio, Silvestre, & Leal, 2014; Tamayo, 2016). Variations in the discussion on television consumption among deaf children are created by element such as language differences, learning environment and upbringing among other aspects. Second-language speakers with hearing disability face an even bigger problem while learning or simply trying to enjoy a television show (De Raeve, 2015; Xiao, Chen, & Palmer, 2015). In researches focused on evaluating the ideal amount of subtitles in television shows, the rate, viewer readability and elaborateness are considered (Borders, Gardiner-Walsh, Herman, & Turner, 2016; Borgia, Bianchini, & De Marsico, 104). Additional elements include the difficulty level of the captions and the level of synchrony of information between the video and the captions.

The need to have a substantial representation for deaf children within the public realm is constantly increasing (Knoors, & Marschark, 2013). As more children are being discovered with this type of disability, school administrators and other stakeholders are seeing the need for such audiovisual provisions. There insufficient research focused on assisting deaf children overcome challenges caused by hearing loss through developing comprehensive, cultural and educational settings. Public locations such as cinemas, hospitals and restaurants are targeted as these areas greatly affect their emotional and social conditions (Hlatywayo & Muranda, 2015; Wu, Price, & Evans, 2014). In this way, their living and learning conditions can be considerably enhanced. This is particularly important for their communication with their ordinary peers (Marschark, Lampropoulou, & Skordilis, 2015). Most learning institutions as well as medical facilities have already adopted this system by taking advantage of existing technology platforms. Most of the infrastructure used in facilitating acquisition of audio elements among special needs children is already universal including subtitling microcomputers and VCRs (Beal-Alvarez, & Cannon, 2014; Sprafkin, Gadow, & Abelman, 2013). In an ordinary environment, ordinary students hearing challenges. After the implementation of assistive measures, this divide is eliminated (Holdsworth, 2015). In these instances, nonverbal information in the form of soundtracks is provided through subtitles (Bosteels, & Blume, 2014; Knoors, & Marschark, 2015). Therefore, while deaf children cannot comprehend audio material, they can decipher the actual description of the audio aspects, speakers’ comments and paralinguistic aspects among others (Foss, 2014; Zárate, 2010). Parents and teachers as well as other stakeholders need to acknowledge that hearing disabilities are a serious issue that affects many learners. Audio perception and synthesis is an important part of learning and children who fail to access the appropriate alternatives grow up with shortcomings especially in communication with their peers.

References

Beal-Alvarez, J., & Cannon, J. E. (2014). Technology intervention research with deaf and hard of hearing learners: Levels of evidence. American Annals of the Deaf, 158(5), 486-505.

Borders, C. M., Gardiner-Walsh, S., Herman, M., & Turner, M. (2016). Inclusion of Deaf/Hard of Hearing Students in the General Education Classroom. In General and Special Education Inclusion in an Age of Change: Impact on Students with Disabilities (pp. 65-94). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Borgia, F., Bianchini, C. S., & De Marsico, M. (2014, June). Towards Improving the e-learning Experience for Deaf Students: e-LUX. In International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction (pp. 221-232). Springer International Publishing.

Bosteels, S., & Blume, S. (2014). The making and unmaking of deaf children. In The Human Enhancement Debate and Disability (pp. 81-100). Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Cambra, C., Penacchio, O., Silvestre, N., & Leal, A. (2014). Visual attention to subtitles when viewing a cartoon by deaf and hearing children: an eye-tracking pilot study. Perspectives, 22(4), 607-617.

Cintas, J. D., & Neves, J. (Eds.). (2015). Audiovisual Translation: Taking Stock. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

De Raeve, L. (2015). Classroom adaptations for effective learning by deaf students. Educating deaf learners: Creating a global evidence base, 547-572.

Foss, K. A. (2014). Constructing Hearing Loss or “Deaf Gain?” Voice, Agency, and Identity in Television’s Representations of d/Deafness. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 31(5), 426-447.

Hlatywayo, L., & Muranda, A. Z. (2015). The impact of hearing loss on literacy development: The role of the home and school. International Journal of Novel Research in Education and Learning, 2(1), 1-9.

Holdsworth, A. (2015). Something special: Care, pre-school television and the disabled child. The Journal of Popular Television, 3(2), 163-178.

Knoors, H., & Marschark, M. (2015). Educating deaf students in a global context. Educating deaf learners: Creating a global evidence base, 1-22.

Marschark, M. (2015). Educating Deaf Learners: Creating a Global Evidence Base. Oxford University Press.

Marschark, M., Lampropoulou, V., & Skordilis, E. K. (2016). Diversity in Deaf Education. Oxford University Press.

Sprafkin, J., Gadow, K. D., & Abelman, R. (2013). Television and the exceptional child: A forgotten audience. Routledge.

Tamayo, A. (2016). Formal Aspects in SDH for Children in Spanish Television: A Descriptive Study. Estudios de Traducción, 6, 109-128.

Tamayo, A. (2016). Reading speed in subtitling for hearing impaired children: an analysis in Spanish television. Journal of Specialised Translation, (26), 275-294.

Wu, Y., Price, E., & Evans, L. (2014). Digital Television and Deaf/Hard of Hearing Audiences in Wales. Swansea: Swansea University College of Arts and Humanities.

Xiao, X., Chen, X., & Palmer, J. L. (2015). Chinese Deaf viewers’ comprehension of sign language interpreting on television: An experimental study. Interpreting, 17(1), 91-117.

Zárate, S. (2010). Bridging the gap between Deaf Studies and AVT for Deaf children. Approaches to Translation Studies, 33.

Zarate, S., & Eliahoo, J. (2014). Word recognition and content comprehension of subtitles for television by deaf children. The Journal of Specialised Translation, (21), 133-152.

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