Argument Analysis Assignment

Argument Analysis Assignment















Argument Analysis Assignment


The article notes that the critical analytical process in decision-making using evidence is usually the need to understand the functionality of things such as mechanisms, processes and dynamics, tradeoffs, and the cause and effect. Essentially, policy thinking and intervention thinking usually require a causality approach. Thus, making decisions by using evidence as the basis requires the appropriate illustration of the validity, reliability, and appropriateness of such evidence. Effective display of data or evidence enables the revelation of important knowledge that is relevant for the understanding the process and dynamics, mechanism and cause and effect of the decision-making process. This infers that the display of statistical data should provide direct service to the subsequent analytical process.


Tufte evaluates two separate events to prove his claims, the challenger disaster and Broad Street cholera epidemic, and uses the data collected from these two incidents. The collection techniques and subsequent presentations are illustrative of the role of information in decision-making in relation to events such as epidemics and disasters. In relation to the cholera outbreak, the author notes that the information collected and its presentation played a critical role in enabling the authorities and care organizations to save lives. On the other hand, when analyzing the Challenger disaster, the author provides the audience with varied alternative graphs from data that was available at the time. This enhances the clarity and provides an emphasis on the correlation that exists between low temperatures and failure of critical components of the space shuttle. It is important to note that utilization of visualizations demands the need for care towards providing appropriate and reliable inferences from the data. In addition, when developing visualizations it is imperative for the researcher to focus on care for positive and effective outcomes, given that they are usually susceptible to manipulation, both unintentionally and intentionally.

In addition, this affirms the critical nature and effects of utilization of visualizations as evidence towards decision-making. Tufte provides a fascinating presentation of the role played by evidence in enabling decision-making, with some having life saving implications as noted from the two cases discussed by the author. He notes that in the demonstrative sciences it is impossible for the practitioners to change phenomena or affirmed hypotheses at will, given that requires the presence of adequate, reliable and valid evidence that may counter previously held assumptions about phenomena.

It is important to note that the inferences derived from the data in the case studies discussed by the author necessitated the need for reality tests. The inferences developed in relation to the extent of the cholera epidemic and the anticipated success of the space shuttle was primarily based on the visual representations provided as evidence. The quality of the presentations varied greatly, which influenced the overall outcomes of the decisions to be made in relation to each incident.


The author affirms the role of evidence in playing a role in decision making by providing an unmistakable and conclusive outcome. If the displays of data are accurate, truthful, and revealing, then the design logic of data presentation or visualization should provide an appropriate and reliable reflection of the underlying intellectual logic in an analysis. Thus, data representation and visualization should be governed by basic principles of reasoning in relation to quantitative evidence.

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